The Mountain people of Oman and Poland both use a unique axe-handled walking stick.
A coincidence that two separate mountain peoples, have developed the same type of unique weapon.
In Poland it is the Ciupaga
, in Oman it is known as the Jerez
As a weapon for defence it requires the art of axe handling, and the lighter skill of fencing. The Polish Ciupaga has a spear tip for impaling an attacker whereas the Jerez has an unsharpened ferrule - the Ciupaga spear best suited as a walking stick point for ice conditions in the Carpathian Winter , the blunter ferrule of the Jerez being better suited to the softer sand terrain of the Musandam .
The Gorale (Polish mountain folk) and the Shihuh/kumzari tribals of the Musandam (mountain region of Oman) are both renowned for their independent ways, and fighting skill. The Jerez / Ciupiaga being a tool used to hook a rider off an horse or crack open a skull with ease.
The Portuguese, Ottomans and British who all tried to colonise Oman, failed - the only arab state that has never been colonised . The Gorale in the Carpathian mountains of Poland have also been resistant to occupiers over the centuries.
Despite the lighter weight of the Jerez, I can confirm it is still a useful tool to have when hiking on foot in sandnegro country - for tapping scorpions and other unwelcome wildlife'.