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Old August 27th, 2012 #1
Alex Linder
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Caribbean Project: The Jewish Role In American Slavery
Posted on August 27, 2012 by Hunter Wallace

The hidden Jewish role in spawning the culture of slavery in the Americas
Barbados



In recent months, I have spent a considerable amount of time here explaining how Barbados – the original English slave society – was the cultural hearth of the British West Indies and the Lower South.

South Carolina (founded in 1670) and Jamaica (founded in 1655) as well as French Saint-Domingue (founded in 1697) were built from the start on the basis of the Barbardian model of race-based plantation slavery.

Barbados (founded in 1627) and Virginia (founded in 1607) were older English colonies that did not start out as full fledged race-based plantation societies. Both colonies originally had a White majority and relied upon a workforce of English indentured servants to grow cotton and tobacco.

In Caribbean Project: The Proto South, we traced the origins of race-based plantation slavery back to the Spanish and Portuguese sugar plantations in Madeira and the Canary Islands in the eastern Atlantic. We saw how Christopher Columbus brought sugarcane to Hispanolia during his second voyage in 1493.

In the century that followed, Spain and Portugal divided the New World in the Treaty of Tordesillas. Significantly, this legitimized the Spanish claim to most of the Americas while ceding Africa and Brazil to the Portuguese. It would also put the African slave trade in Portuguese hands by expelling Spain from Africa.

During the sixteenth century, the Spanish created the first race-based sugar plantations in Hispanolia and Puerto Rico. Originally, Caribbean Indians were used as slave laborers, but as their populations declined the Spanish turned to the Portuguese to import African slaves.

By the mid-sixteenth century, there were tens of thousands of African slaves in Hispanolia and Puerto Rico. As Spain’s interest shifted toward their far more lucrative conquests in Mexico and Peru though, Hispanolia and Puerto Rico became backwaters of the empire and the plantation system collapsed there.

The future Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico were failed Spanish slave states that came to be dominated by cattle ranching and peasant agriculture – this is why Dominicans and Puerto Ricans became so much more mixed and multiracial than Cubans.

At this point in the New World, it appeared that race-based, modern agro-industrial plantation slavery had failed – but there was one major exception, Portuguese Brazil, where the sugar industry was taking off due to constant reinforcements of African slave labor from nearby Portuguese Angola.

How did Barbados become the first race-based plantation society in British America?

“While the importance of the Dutch introduction of sugarcane to Barbados in 1637 is open to question, the crucial role of Dutch merchants in providing financial backing with which British settlers built the first sugar mills on that island is beyond dispute. Dutch planters and sugar masters also taught the British Barbadians what they came to call the “method of Pernambuco” – which included not only the know-how of planting, milling, and processing cane, but also the rudiments of a legal code of regulating slavery. Dutch ships, finally, linked Barbados’s emerging plantation economy both to the supply of African labor provided by the Atlantic slave trade and to the effective and profitable distribution networks in the Netherlands. Although the extent of Dutch involvement has lately become a subject of debate among historians, it may be safe to say that within little more than a decade between 1640 and 1650, the Dutch helped to transform Barbados from a slaveholding society with a large yeoman population engaged in fairly diversified economic pursuits into a slave society solidly based on sugar monoculture.”

That’s interesting.

Barbados was the first successful race-based plantation society in the Caribbean – it was the model that spread across the Leeward and Windward Islands, to Jamaica and Saint-Domingue, later to Cuba and the Guianas, and most significantly, to South Carolina and to Virginia which became a slave society in the late seventeenth century.

This shit got off the ground in Portuguese Brazil and the Dutch had played a decisive role in the industrial espionage that brought race-based plantation slavery into the British and French Caribbean.

In Jews, Slavery, and Dixie, I noted that the Jew had once wore the pro-White hat and had once been quite the racialist and owned black slaves and had definitely been involved in the African slave trade, especially in the Dutch and Portuguese colonies in the Caribbean:

“Sephardic Jews who had lived for centuries in the Caribbean and the antebellum South were accustomed to racialism and white supremacy and actually played a key role in bringing plantation slavery from Portuguese Brazil to the English and French colonies in the Lesser Antilles.”

After reading the passage above in The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples, I was struck by lightning like Chechar and remembered that “the Dutch” and “the Portuguese” here were probably Sephardic Jews:

“The introduction of sugarcane from Dutch Brazil completely transformed society and the economy. Barbados eventually had one of the world’s biggest sugar industries after starting sugar cane cultivation in 1640. [6] One group which was instrumental for ensuring the early success of the sugar cane industry were the Sephardic Jews, who originally been expelled from the Iberian peninsula to end up in Dutch Brazil. [6] As the effects of the new crop increased, so did the shift in the ethnic composition of Barbados and surrounding islands. The workable sugar plantation required a large investment and a great deal of heavy labour. At first, Dutch traders supplied the equipment, financing, and African slaves, in addition to transporting most of the sugar to Europe. In 1644 the population of Barbados was estimated at 30,000, of this amount about 800 were of African descent, with the remainder mainly of English descent. These English smallholders were eventually bought out and the island was filled up with large African slave-worked sugar plantations. By 1660 there was near parity with 27,000 blacks and 26,000 whites. By 1666 at least 12,000 white smallholders had been bought out, died, left or the island. Many of the remaining whites were increasingly poor. By 1680 there were seventeen slaves for every indentured servant. By 1700, there were 15,000 free whites and 50,000 enslaved blacks.”

This is an exciting find.

If this is true, it means that Jews are morally responsible for the spread of slavery and racism through Brazil, the Caribbean, and the American South. I will continue my research in this area and publish my findings in my first book on race and the Caribbean.

[from Occidental Dissent]
 
Old August 27th, 2012 #2
Karl Radl
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As to who funded and bears a disproportionate amount of responsibility for the Dutch slave trade I found this a while back when I was doing research on another issue:

'In the early decades of the seventeenth century the Amsterdam stock exchange perfected its regulations, services and products to make it one of the driving forces of the Dutch economy. Each day, from midday until two in the afternoon, 4,000 investors, speculators, merchants and middlemen crowded together in the courtyard of the stock exchange to carry out their business. It is significant that on Saturdays only 2,000 people were at the stock exchange, that being the day the Jews did not work.'

Alberto Guenzi, 2006, 'European Expansion in the Seventeenth Century', p. 73 in Antonio di Vittorio, 2006, 'An Economic History of Europe: From Expansion to Development', 1st Edition, Routledge: New York


Incidentally 'the Portuguese' was a common way of talking about Sephardic jews who had become Marranos (professing Catholicism keeping jewish ways in secret). Albert Hyamson talks about it in his history of the Sephardim in England.
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Old August 28th, 2012 #3
Alex Linder
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Caribbean Project: Jews, Slavery, and the Dutch Caribbean
Posted on August 28, 2012 by Hunter Wallace


African slaves in Dutch Curaçao toil for their Jewish masters
Curaçao


For much of the summer, I have focused intensively on the British West Indies and the French West Indies because of their strong organic ties to the culture of the Lower South.

We have seen how the type of race-based plantation slave society that emerged in South Carolina and Louisiana was pioneered in the British and French Caribbean and was brought there by settlers from the islands.

The Dutch Caribbean also played a crucial role in this story – it was Sephardic Jews operating through the Dutch West India Company that brought race-based plantation slavery from Brazil to Barbados in the 1640s which became the model for the spread of slavery throughout the whole Caribbean and the American South.

From the 1620s to the 1650s, Spanish hegemony in the Caribbean was on the wane as a consequence of the Thirty Years’ War in Europe and Spain began to lose its grip over much of the region and the entirety of the eastern Caribbean to Britain, France, and the Netherlands.

- England took St. Kitts (1624), Barbados (1627), Nevis (1628), Providence (1630), Antigua (1632), Montserrat (1632), and Jamaica (1655).

- France claimed Saint-Christophe (1625), Saint-Domingue (1641), Guadeloupe (1635) and Martinique (1635).

- The Dutch claimed St. Martin (1631), Curaçao (1634), St. Eustatius (1635), Saba (1640), and Aruba and Bonaire (1634).

The Dutch islands of St. Martin, St. Eustatius, and Saba are part of the Leeward Islands in the northern Lesser Antilles. Curaçao, Aruba, and Bonaire are small islands off the coast of Venezuela to the west of Trinidad and Tobago.

In 1630, the Dutch seized Pernambuco and Recife in northeastern Brazil where they heavily invested in the sugar plantations that would become the nucleus of the New World agro-industrial plantation complex. From 1630 to 1654, Dutch Brazil was known as New Holland.

It is important to keep this in perspective: American slavery was a sideshow in the larger story of slavery in the Americas, about 600,000 slaves were brought to British North America, 5% of the 12 million that were brought to the New World.

In contrast, 3 million African slaves were brought to Brazil to work on sugar plantations, 35% of the 12 million that were brought to the New World. Another 17% percent were brought to Spanish America by the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French under the asiento system.

As previously noted, Jews were heavily involved in the slave trade in the Dutch and Portuguese colonies, and their trading outposts on these islands served as major hubs for supplying Spanish America and the British and French Caribbean with slaves.

The island of Curaçao directly off the Spanish Main played a key role in Jewish involvement in the slave trade:

“Though small in size, Curaçao’s Jewish community has a significant impact on history, as per their heavy involvement in the slave trade. Curaçao is home to the oldest active Jewish congregation in the Americas, dating to 1651. The Curaçao synagogue is the oldest synagogue of the Americas in continuous use, since its completion in 1732 on the site of a previous synagogue.”

According to The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples, Sephardic Jews outnumbered the Dutch in Curaçao and Suriname:

“In the seventeenth century, Curaçao emerged as an economic powerhouse based on legal and illegal commerce, not least the slave trade to Spanish America … Another social factor in the Dutch colonies that was largely absent from the French Caribbean was the presence of mainly Sephardic Jews in Curaçao and Suriname, where they actually outnumbered the Dutch.”

The Jew also brought race-based plantation slavery to the French Caribbean, not just to Barbados and the British Caribbean:

“Robert Louis Stein argues that the introduction of commercial sugarcane planting to the French West Indies was “the most significant single event” to occur during the 17th century. It was linked, he says, to the arrival of Dutch and Jewish settlers from Brazil, who were the driving force behind “sugar and slavery” there, as well as tobthe development of the regional market in enslaved Africans. (Stein 1979, 9-11).”

So, the Jew was the driving force behind the emergence of the nucleus of race-based, modern, agro-industrial plantation slavery in Brazil, and was the dominant force in Curaçao and Suriname, as well as spreading this model to the nearby British and French West Indies from where it was launched to North America.

“In Curaçao, a group of Spanish and Portuguese Jews with the necessary linguistic skills and good connections in the Atlantic became decisive actors. This model procured for Amsterdam an enormous quantity of precious metals during the middle decades of the 17th century, although in the long term it proved too fragile to resist competition from foreign countries.”

What do you suppose the Jews in Curaçao were trading for Spanish gold and silver? African slaves would be my guess. I’m feeling like I am getting a bite here, folks. I can feel something big pulling on the end of the line.

Note: How much truth is there in this video? We’re going to find out eventually.

[from Occidental Dissent]
 
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