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Old May 12th, 2012 #1
Alex Linder
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Default Egypt

Half of European men share King Tut's DNA

By Alice Baghdjian

LONDON | Mon Aug 1, 2011 6:58pm BST

(Reuters) - Up to 70 percent of British men and half of all Western European men are related to the Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun, geneticists in Switzerland said.

Scientists at Zurich-based DNA genealogy centre, iGENEA, reconstructed the DNA profile of the boy Pharaoh, who ascended the throne at the age of nine, his father Akhenaten and grandfather Amenhotep III, based on a film that was made for the Discovery Channel.

The results showed that King Tut belonged to a genetic profile group, known as haplogroup R1b1a2, to which more than 50 percent of all men in Western Europe belong, indicating that they share a common ancestor.

Among modern-day Egyptians this haplogroup contingent is below 1 percent, according to iGENEA.

"It was very interesting to discover that he belonged to a genetic group in Europe -- there were many possible groups in Egypt that the DNA could have belonged to," said Roman Scholz, director of the iGENEA Centre.

Around 70 percent of Spanish and 60 percent of French men also belong to the genetic group of the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt more than 3,000 years ago.

"We think the common ancestor lived in the Caucasus about 9,500 years ago," Scholz told Reuters.

It is estimated that the earliest migration of haplogroup R1b1a2 into Europe began with the spread of agriculture in 7,000 BC, according to iGENEA.

However, the geneticists were not sure how Tutankhamun's paternal lineage came to Egypt from its region of origin.

The centre is now using DNA testing to search for the closest living relatives of "King Tut."

"The offer has only been publicised for three days but we have already seen a lot of interest," Scholz told Reuters.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/0...7704OR20110801
 
Old May 12th, 2012 #2
John in Woodbridge
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I always found it amusing that blacks claim the ancient Egyptians were black and blacks created advanced mathematics and so forth. Assuming that is true what happened between then and now? Did the blacks get hit with a retard plague?
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Old May 12th, 2012 #3
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I was reading Aryan Myth and Metahistory and Wotan was discussing the book Egyptian Civilization. Its Sumerian Origin and Real Chronology which connects the pre-dynastic Pharaohs with the Sumerians and their Indo-Aryan roots. It's an interesting book, starting with Menes.

You can find it here:

http://books.google.com/books?id=4Uk...page&q&f=false
 
Old May 13th, 2012 #4
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Originally Posted by John in Woodbridge View Post
I always found it amusing that blacks claim the ancient Egyptians were black and blacks created advanced mathematics and so forth. Assuming that is true what happened between then and now? Did the blacks get hit with a retard plague?
It wouldn't surprise me if logic behind this belief is purely this:

African america = black.

Egypt is in africa.

Ancient Egyptians = black.
 
Old April 18th, 2013 #5
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Secede. Control taxbases/municipalities. Use boycotts, divestment, sanctions, strikes.
http://www.aeinstein.org/wp-content/...d-Jan-2015.pdf
https://canvasopedia.org/wp-content/...Points-web.pdf
 
Old April 18th, 2013 #6
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Ancient Egypt had a lot of caucasian/white influence, until nowadays.



Cleopatra's bust.

THE PTOLEMAIC EGYPTIANS WERE WHITES AS PERSIANS AND SUMERIANS
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Old April 18th, 2013 #7
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Gamal Abdel Nasser. Am I the only one who think he is Cromagnid + Arabid? Also, he was president in Egypt.
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Old November 1st, 2013 #8
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Cleopatra's bust.

THE PTOLEMAIC EGYPTIANS WERE WHITES AS PERSIANS AND SUMERIANS
The Ptolemies weren't Egyptians, but Greco-Macedonian. They were actually white, unlike Persians and Sumerians.
 
Old November 3rd, 2013 #9
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This absolutely destroys any niggercentric fallacy that the Egyptians were niggers.

Its a good article to post next time some anti starts throwing around niggercentric bullshit.

DNA evidence trumps ALL circumstantial evidence.
 
Old November 3rd, 2013 #10
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Originally Posted by Alex Linder View Post
Half of European men share King Tut's DNA

By Alice Baghdjian

LONDON | Mon Aug 1, 2011 6:58pm BST

(Reuters) - Up to 70 percent of British men and half of all Western European men are related to the Egyptian Pharaoh Tutankhamun, geneticists in Switzerland said.

Scientists at Zurich-based DNA genealogy centre, iGENEA, reconstructed the DNA profile of the boy Pharaoh, who ascended the throne at the age of nine, his father Akhenaten and grandfather Amenhotep III, based on a film that was made for the Discovery Channel.

The results showed that King Tut belonged to a genetic profile group, known as haplogroup R1b1a2, to which more than 50 percent of all men in Western Europe belong, indicating that they share a common ancestor.

Among modern-day Egyptians this haplogroup contingent is below 1 percent, according to iGENEA.

"It was very interesting to discover that he belonged to a genetic group in Europe -- there were many possible groups in Egypt that the DNA could have belonged to," said Roman Scholz, director of the iGENEA Centre.

Around 70 percent of Spanish and 60 percent of French men also belong to the genetic group of the Pharaoh who ruled Egypt more than 3,000 years ago.

"We think the common ancestor lived in the Caucasus about 9,500 years ago," Scholz told Reuters.

It is estimated that the earliest migration of haplogroup R1b1a2 into Europe began with the spread of agriculture in 7,000 BC, according to iGENEA.

However, the geneticists were not sure how Tutankhamun's paternal lineage came to Egypt from its region of origin.

The centre is now using DNA testing to search for the closest living relatives of "King Tut."

"The offer has only been publicised for three days but we have already seen a lot of interest," Scholz told Reuters.

http://uk.reuters.com/article/2011/0...7704OR20110801

The vids not perfect, but gives us some idea. One of the better alternative theories out of many..
I tend to think.

 
Old December 20th, 2013 #12
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Default Statues discovered at ancient Hermonthis in Egypt

Two statues of Egyptian dignitaries; one a scribe and physician to a Pharaoh from the mid-18th Dynasty and the other a high priest and contemporary of Ramses II, were unearthed in November at the site of Armant in the region of Thebes (Upper Egypt). A fragment of limestone wall from a temple dating to the Middle Kingdom (2000 BC) was also discovered.

The finds were made by a team of archaeologists led by Christophe Thiers, Director of the Centre Franco-Egyptian study of Karnak temples and are in an excellent state of preservation. Only a few days earlier, five sandstone Pharaoh heads were found at the same site.


Limestone statue of Nebamon. © CNRS-CFEETK / J. Maucor.

Ancient Hermonthis

Since 2004, regular archaeological work has been carried out at the site of Armant - ancient Hermonthis – which sits a few kilometres south of Luxor.

The first statue to be discovered in November was that of Nebamon – a mid-18th Dynasty elite official who was a royal scribe and physician of the Pharaoh. On his knees is a seated statue of the god Montu.

The second statue is of Ramose, the first high priest of Montu Ermant and a contemporary of Ramses II. He is depicted with an offering table on top of which sit two falcon heads, personifying the god Montu. This double representation of the god is unique as no other statue of this type has as yet been found. Ramose was only known by a statue housed at the Art Institute of Chicago and a representation in the Theban tomb of Khonsu in which he participates in a procession in honour of the god of Armant.



Statue de Ramose. © CNRS-CFEETK / J. Maucor

A slab has also been found (160 x 130 x 40 cm) which is a fragment of limestone wall of the main temple of the Middle Empire dedicated to the god Montu-Re. This block of stone bears a representation of the god of death Anubis and dates from the reign of Amenemhat I (circa 1990 BC).
Royal heads

Five royal heads were also found in the foundations at the front of the temple of Montu-Ra, where they were intentionally grouped. Carved out of sandstone, they measure between 61 and 84 cm and bear the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The state of preservation is good and still clearly visible are blue pigments (beard) and reds (skin and part of the crown). They bear no hieroglyphic inscription to reveal the name of the Pharaoh but initial observations suggest that they are of Middle Kingdom date.

Source: CNRS

http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index....nthis-in-egypt
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Old December 21st, 2013 #13
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Default Magical Medieval Crypt Holds 7 Male Mummies


The 900-year-old crypt, in modern-day Sudan, was built for Archbishop Georgios, a powerful religious leader in Makuria, a kingdom that flourished in the Nile Valley during the Middle Ages.

A 900-year-old medieval crypt, containing seven naturally mummified bodies and walls covered with inscriptions, has been excavated in a monastery at Old Dongola, the capital of a lost medieval kingdom that flourished in the Nile Valley.

Old Dongola is located in modern-day Sudan, and 900 years ago, it was the capital of Makuria, a Christian kingdom that lived in peace with its Islamic neighbor to the north.

One of the mummies in the crypt (scientists aren't certain which one) is believed to be that of Archbishop Georgios, probably the most powerful religious leader in the kingdom. His epitaph was found nearby and says that he died in A.D. 1113 at the age of 82.

Magical inscriptions

The inscriptions on the walls of the crypt, inscribed with black ink on a thin layer of whitewash (paint), were written in Greek and Sahidic Coptic. They include excerpts from the gospels of Luke, John, Mark and Matthew, magical names and signs and a prayer given by the Virgin Mary, at the end of which death appears to her "in the form of a rooster." After Mary dies, according to the text, she ascends to heaven with Jesus.

The inscriptions, written by "Ioannes," who left a signature on three and possibly four of the walls, likely served as protection for the deceased against evil powers, the researchers said.
Photos: Mummy Stash Found in Italian Church

They were "intended to safeguard not only the tomb, but primarily those who were buried inside of it during the dangerous liminal period between the moment of dying and their appearance before the throne of God," write Adam Lajtar, of the University of Warsaw, and Jacques van der Vliet, of Leiden University, in the most recent edition of the journal Polish Archaeology in the Mediterranean.

The crypt contained the bodies of seven older males, no younger than 40, said anthropologist Robert Mahler, a researcher with the University of Warsaw who examined the remains.

The crypt was likely sealed after the last of the burials took place. "The entrance to the chamber was closed with red bricks bonded in mud mortar," writes W?odzimierz Godlewski, the current director of the Polish Mission to Dongola, in an article in the same journal.

While the mummies' clothing is very poorly preserved, textile specialist Barbara Czaja-Szewczak, with the Wilanów Palace Museum, determined the men were dressed very simply, mainly in linen garments. The garments "consisted of robes characterized by a fairly simple design. Linen predominated," she wrote in an article in the same journal. At least some of the individuals wore crosses somewhere on their body.

The crypt was first found in 1993 by the Polish Mission to Dongola, which at the time was led by director Stefan Jakobielski. However, it wasn't excavated until 2009. During excavations, the bodies were removed and studied, the crypt walls cleaned and its inscriptions recorded and studied in greater detail. Research efforts are ongoing and a complete record of the texts is expected to be detailed in a book in the future.


A lost kingdom

At the time the crypt was created, Makuria was at its height. Its kings, ruling from Old Dongola, controlled territory throughout much of modern-day Sudan and parts of southern Egypt.

"The period between the late eighth and 12th centuries is claimed to have been the golden age of Makuria," said Artur Obluski, a research associate with the University of Chicago's Oriental Institute and the University of Warsaw's Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology, at a recent lecture at Toronto's Royal Ontario Museum.

Makuria's ability to maintain good relations with its Islamic neighbor to the north, the Fatimid Caliphate, which controlled Egypt, was important to the kingdom's success, said Obluski. The two had an extensive trade relationship, and many people from Makuria served in the Fatimid army.

Arab historians at the time were impressed by the Christian monasteries they saw at Makuria. Though some reports of these monasteries were exaggerated, archaeologists have found some fantastic medieval churches, including recently excavated examples at Banganarti.

Makuria's end came when the Ayyubid dynasty took control of Egypt in A.D. 1171. They launched an invasion of northern Makuria, bringing about a period of decline and eventually the loss of the kingdom's independence.

http://news.discovery.com/history/an...es-1312181.htm
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Old February 19th, 2014 #15
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Default 3,600-year-old mummy discovered in Egypt



Spanish archaeologists have dug up a 3,600-year-old mummy in the ancient city of Luxor, Egypt, that country’s antiquities minister said last week.

Mohammed Ibrahim said in a statement that the rare find in a preserved wooden sarcophagus dates back to 1600 B.C. A sarcophagus is a coffin used to bury people in ancient civilizations.



http://www.washingtonpost.com/lifest...5fb_story.html
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Old February 22nd, 2014 #16
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Default Ancient Egyptian papyri discovered at Luther College

http://www.decorahnewspapers.com/mai...rticleID=33184



In January, nine papyri documents almost 2,000 years old were discovered by a student in the Luther College library archives, where they had remained hidden in a cardboard box for decades.

Luther sophomore Brittany Anderson was conducting a routine inventory of the papers of the late Orlando W. Qualley, longtime professor of classics and dean of the college, when she came across the nine ancient documents among Qualley's letters and journals donated to the college in the 1980s. The papyri-one of which, a libellus, is especially rare-date from the first to the fifth centuries A.D. and were apparently purchased by Qualley from an antiquities dealer when he was part of a University of Michigan archaeological excavation at Karanis, south of Cairo, in 1924-25.

"Luther College is incredibly fortunate to have in its possession the Qualley papyri, especially the libellus, a rare and invaluable find from the early centuries of Christian history," said Philip Freeman, Qualley Chair of Ancient Languages at Luther. "As soon as they are properly preserved, we hope to display all the papyri in our library for everyone to see. They provide a great opportunity for our students to examine a genuine piece of the ancient world."

The nine papyri, written in ancient Greek, measure from 5 to 20 centimeters in length and are in remarkably good shape, though all are fragmentary and quite fragile. Papyrus was the primary writing medium of the ancient world and was made from the interwoven fibers of the papyrus plant, which grows along the banks of the Nile River.

Upon finding the documents, Anderson contacted the Luther Classics Department faculty, who examined the papyri and in turn contacted the Papyrus Collection staff at the University of Michigan, one of the leading centers of papyrus study in the world, for help in identifying and analyzing the discoveries. Several are accounting documents, but papyrologist Graham Claytor immediately identified one as a libellus dating from the first great Roman persecution of Christians beginning under Emperor Decius in the year 250.

Decius issued a decree that year ordering all inhabitants of the empire to offer a sacrifice to the gods as a show of loyalty. A libellus was a document given to a Roman citizen to confirm the performance of such a sacrifice. Christians were forbidden by their beliefs from performing these sacrifices and were thus subject to arrest, torture and execution for refusing to obey the emperor's decree. Pope Fabian was among those who refused to sacrifice and was subsequently killed by the Roman authorities.

The Luther College libellus bears the name of Aurelius Ammon, a servant of the well-attested Aurelius Appianus, a leading citizen of Alexandria, Egypt. It declares that Aurelius Ammon has sacrificed "in accordance with the orders" of the emperor. The papyrus was probably part of a collection made in ancient times from the village of Theadelphia in Egypt's Fayum region. Only a few of these rare documents have been uncovered, and they are currently housed in research libraries in Hamburg, Berlin, Manchester, Florence, and the University of Michigan. Now Decorah, Iowa, joins the list.

Luther College plans to work with the University of Michigan to preserve all the Qualley papyri and make them available online in digital format to scholars and people around the world.
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Old April 1st, 2014 #17
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3,300-Year-Old Egyptian Tomb Reveals Elaborate Burial Rites Of Ancient Elite

By Philip Ross
March 31 2014 5:01 PM


Archaeologists led by Kevin Cahail from the University of Pennsylvania recently uncovered a 3,300-year-old Egyptian tomb at the site of an ancient cemetery in Abydos. Its vaulted chambers housed several sarcophaguses and contained artifacts for the afterlife.

Ancient Egypt was known as the Gift of the Nile. For modern Egyptologists, the real gifts lie just beneath the desert surface. Archaeologists have recently uncovered an elaborate 3,300-year-old tomb that once boasted a 23-foot pyramid at its entrance. The tomb was laden with the skeletal remains of at least 15 people and housed a sandstone sarcophagus on which hieroglyphics were inscribed.

According to Live Science, the tomb was discovered at an ancient cemetery in Abydos, one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt located about 11 kilometers, or seven miles, west of the Nile. The tomb’s many vaulted chambers would have been built below the surface, with only the pyramid visible at ground level.

“Originally, all you probably would have seen was the pyramid and maybe a little wall around the structure just to enclose everything,” Kevin Cahail, a doctoral student at the University of Pennsylvania and the tomb’s lead excavator, told Live Science. “[The pyramid] probably would have had a small mortuary chapel inside of it that may have held a statue or a stela giving the names and titles of the individuals buried underneath.”

The only part of the pyramid that remains today is the thick walls of the tomb’s entrance that would have served as the base of the pyramid.

Researchers determined that the sarcophagus, which had been painted red and depicted on its surface images of several Egyptian gods and spells from the Book of the Dead, was constructed for a scribe named Horemheb who was a general of the army under Tutankhamun. There was no mummy in the sarcophagus.

Along with the sarcophagus, excavators uncovered several ushabti figurines, which were placed in ancient tombs to act as substitutes for the deceased. They also recovered a rare heart-shaped amulet made of red and green jasper. Cahail said the amulet was probably worn on the chest of one of the deceased.

Archaeologists say the tomb was raided at least twice many years ago. Only a few artifacts and the human remains survived the lootings.

The skeletons found in the tomb – representing three to four men, 10 to 12 women and at least two children – likely belonged to members of the same two families. The presence of far more females than males would suggest polygamy, a practice that was common among Egyptian royalty.

Archaeologists believe Horemheb’s ties to the military would have allowed his family to afford a tomb with so many bells and whistles.

The tomb was excavated in the summer and winter of 2013. Cahail and his team will present the results of their study at the American Research Center of Egypt in Portland, Ore., later this week.

http://www.ibtimes.com/3300-year-old...-elite-1565335
 
Old May 1st, 2014 #18
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Scientists Discovered the Egyptian Secret to Moving Huge Pyramid Stones

The question of just how an ancient civilization—without the help of modern technology—moved the 2.5 ton stones that made up their famed pyramids has long plagued Egyptologists and mechanical engineers alike. But now, a team from the University of Amsterdam believes they've figured it out, even though the solution was staring them in the face all along.

It all comes down to friction. See, the ancient Egyptians would transport their rocky cargo across the desert sands, from quarry to monument site with large sleds. Pretty basic sleds, basically just large slabs with upturned edges. Now, when you try to pull a large slab with upturned edges carrying a 2.5 ton load, it tends to dig into the sand ahead of it, building up a sand berm that must then be regularly cleared before it can become an even bigger obstacle.

Wet sand, however, doesn't do this. In sand with just the right amount of dampness, capillary bridges—essentially microdroplets of water that bind grains of sand to one another through capillary action—form across the grains, which doubles the material's relative stiffness. This prevents the sand from berming in front of the sled and cuts the force required to drag the sled in half. In half.

As a UvA press release explains,

The physicists placed a laboratory version of the Egyptian sledge in a tray of sand. They determined both the required pulling force and the stiffness of the sand as a function of the quantity of water in the sand. To determine the stiffness they used a rheometer, which shows how much force is needed to deform a certain volume of sand.

Experiments revealed that the required pulling force decreased proportional to the stiffness of the sand...A sledge glides far more easily over firm desert sand simply because the sand does not pile up in front of the sledge as it does in the case of dry sand.

These experiments served to confirm what the Egyptians clearly already knew, and what we probably already should have. Artwork within the tomb of Djehutihotep, which was discovered in the Victorian Era, depicts a scene of slaves hauling a colossal statue of the Middle Kingdom ruler and in it, a guy at the front of the sled is shown pouring liquid into the sand. You can see it in the image above, just to the right of the statue's foot.



http://gizmodo.com/scientists-discov...ndrewtarantola
 
Old December 13th, 2014 #19
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http://news.yahoo.com/2-400-old-coff...114441543.html

2,400-Year-Old Coffin's 'Odd' Art Hints at Ancient Egypt's Brain Drain

TORONTO — An ancient Egyptian coffin with strange and amateurish decorations has been revealed, shedding light on a tumultuous period in Egyptian history when the Persian Empire was in control of the region.

In 525 B.C., Persian King Cambyses marched into Memphis, the Egyptian capital, inaugurating a period of Persian rule that would last for more than a century. The Persian Empire was a vast entity that stretched from modern-day Afghanistan to the west coast of Turkey. Ancient texts say that the Persian kings deported Egyptian artists and used them for building projects in Persia.
 
Old March 26th, 2015 #20
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The Ancient Egyptians were North African Mediterraneans. Haplogroup R is theorized to have originated by a man living in South or Central Asia 20,000 years ago.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R-M207
 
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