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Old October 4th, 2013 #1
Tiwaz
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Default History and Culture

LEGACY OF STEFAN NEMANJA


LEGACY OF THE LAND



The nation which doesn’t have the land cannot be called a nation.

Land makes the nation, my dear child.

The nation is not the flock of birds or the herd moving from the south to the north, landing to the land for picking up the seeds or stopping by just to graze and drink a water.

The human hordes, which are still moving through the space in this way, are not a nation. They can become the nation just after they stop and inhabit the fields, forests, rivers and lakes, seas and coasts. Nations are still transiting through Serbia from one part of the world to another. AVARI and HUNI, PECENEZI and KUMANI, and together with them all the other nations stormed through these lands as a foreign flows. But, child of mine, these flows have never become rivers. Only the trails of destruction were left behind.

They were born at one end of the world and died on another. They have never drunk the water form the same well. They have never spent the night where they’ve spent the day. They have never passed the winter where they’ve passed the summer.

From the land they were passing through they had only the roads. The fields, forests, rivers and mountains, villages and cities belonged to the ones who lived there before their arrival and to the ones who lived there after they came.

My dear child, those hordes can become the nation after they are borne and they die on the same ground, start to inseminate and plant, than harvest and gather on the same land and not only taking by force fruits from a land that belong to others.

Write this down, child of mine, for this nation to remember, nation destined to move and walk in the path of blood.

Write this down, child of mine, the land as well as a woman belongs to the one who’s leaving the seed, fructifies it and to whom she bears. Write down, my child, the following: the land as well as the woman cannot be abducted or taken away on a journey. If you desire the land to stay yours, you have to be present and stay in it.

The nations, which intrude one country, to rob, burn or destroy it are not its masters. We have entered these lands long time ago to inhabit, model and master by it.

Child of mine, for hundreds of years we have already been here and still we haven’t mastered with the wanderers urge within us. We are everywhere. This nation bursts and flows on every side as a young wine.

The land still can’t keep us, neither can we keep her.

Sometimes I fear, my child, that we will flow to some other, solid nations and will be spilled like a water down the mountain to some outlandish rivers and vanish in them as if nothing had ever existed.

Never be separated from the land and never separate it by yourself.

Gather all of our countries and never take away the land from yourself or from another.

If one nation has a mother, than his mother would be the land she lives on. The land bears and feeds us over and over again. The land is eternal bearer of the nation.

Take a good care of her and don’t lose it, my child. Kiss not only all of her fields and mountains, rivers and seas; but also every grain of hers. You have to know, my dear child that that grain which fits in a palm is all the land. That’s why you must take your land in your palms and never for any reason let it go from your hands, because you are nation only with this land in your hands; and without it, empty handed we are just lost wanderers between nations.


LEGACY OF THE BLOOD

And remember my child, a blood and the blood only make a nation.

The blood is eternal.

The blood of a new borne child is thousands of years old. The child is young, but a blood in his veins is that same old blood which flew through the veins of his ancestors thousands of years before.

Mine blood, dear child, flows in your veins as well and if you hadn’t intended to go through the life and time with a streams of a body and blood, but with the spiritual wings; your blood would also flow in your children. But you already have your spiritual children and they will take you to the depth of the centuries and remote times.

My dear child, as the great river flows through the gorges to the fields, such is the streaming of the blood through time, from one generation to other, from one century further away and so on.

What is than a man, but a small cup ceding the eternal and holy blood from one generation to another.

That’s why the blood doesn’t belong to the man but to nation, it’s never in flow for one man but for the whole nation and when the time comes they don’t’ ask you who are you and what are you like but what blood do you bare: Serbian or Hungarian, Greece or AVARSKA. In horrible time like that when everyone are silent, the blood speaks in language of ancestors and you will not be asked who are you and what are you like but whose blood flows in your veins.

Children of mine, in the name of the blood and the spirit of mine, let there be no hatred towards the other blood and especially not toward the brotherly blood.

Don’t spill others blood because it’s form another nation. But and the same time my child without any doubt strongly defend yourself because its your blood and the blood of your ancestors.

Never give our blood to be spilled because it’s Serbian.

Go with peace into war and with war give peace.

Return love with love, but defend the Serbian blood with the blood.


LEGACY OF THE GRAVES AND THE BONES

The graves, my dear child, graves and bones makes the nation.

Those who are not aware of their graves and their bones can never become a nation. They are more aliken to the wolves and foxes, those who do not know their graves.

And the graves are, my child, silent villages under the ground still having deceased for its inhabitants. The graves are silent beds they sleep in forever, resting in untouchable peace, these bodies of our ancestors.

The nation is not build just of the living ones who walk and create above the ground, but each and every of the dead as well, resting inside.

One swath does not make a field, nor does one mow. One swath for the field is the same as the one battle or qualm for the nation.

The nation grows in waves and falls in mows of death as grass, but at the same time it develops thicker and thicker through the ground and flourishes with new generations.

Remember, my child, our graves are the holiest marks of our nation and the holiest boundaries of our country.

If no one of the living can give you the answer to the question, what distance does you land and your heritage reach, search for the bones and graves, and the dead will tell you the truth.


LEGACY OF THE HEAVEN AND THE STARS

Certain things cannot be at earth, man and nation cannot be without them or, if they can, they are neither humans nor nation.

Certain things cannot be plowed, forged in the blacksmith shop, become covered with leaves within wood, dreamed within dream, told by tongue, attained by mind, killed by sward, within story told, child of mine.

Certain things cannot be onto the earth at all.

Moreover, every man has its own sky over his head, every nation its own heaven. There is everything they have not in the earth.

There is, child of mine, exactly everything that at the cultivated field cannot be grown, in the blacksmith shop cannot be forged, does not become covered with leaves within wood, cannot be burned by fire, cannot be dreamed within dream, and cannot be told by tongue, not attained by mind, cannot be killed by sword and within story told.

Everything that is not onto earth, there is, really.

Everything is possible there. Moreover, not everybody can know that nor see it.

Only prophets and clairvoyants, astronomers and astrologers can know that. Again, that can nebogledac and nebotvorac, neboteča and nebohodac, neboslov and neboslovac, neboljub and neboljubac, neboplovni neboplovac and neborodni neborodac (Serbian various terms for gifted people in a meaning of knowing and loving the sky and heavenly things). In addition, there are other spirituals and wonder men, heroes and sages, lunatics, martyrs and lucky men, the wizards of sky; those who has knowledge of ascending earth to heavens, VOZNESUT ZEMLJU DO NEBES, AND WHO HAS POWER TO BRING DOWN HEAVENS TO THE EARTH.

Those are people with knowledge of opening heavens.

Above is everything we do not possess down here, everything we are waiting for.

Remember well, child of mine, that human’s body exists on earth, but his soul flutters trough sky.

In such a way, nation exists on earth but his soul lives in the sky. Nation without soul has no its own sky. Heavens


LEGACY OF THE LANGUAGE

Guard to your language like your country, child of mine. The word can be lost like city, like land, like soul. What would the nation be if lost all that?

Do not talk with foreign words. If you do, know that you have not take it over, but that you converted yourself. You would better lose the greatest and hardest city and your countries than the smallest and most insignificant word of your language.

Swards are not the only arms to conquer the countries and lands, languages are too. Know that your enemy conquers you by quantity of words he cancels and overcomes.

If the nation lost its words, it is no longer the nation.

There are illnesses, child of mine that attacks language like an infection the body. I can remember those illnesses and foolishnesses. Oftentimes that is happening at the edges of people, at points of contact, where one language rubs with another.

Two nations, my dear, can fight and reconcile. Two languages can never reconcile. Two nations can live within greatest peace and love, but their languages can only fight. Whenever two languages meet and mix, they are like two armies in a battle for death and life. Until when both can be listened, the battle is equal; when one starts to overpower, that one will prevail over. At the end, there is the only one. The battle is over. One language vanished and one nation disappeared.

That battle between languages neither lasts for a day or two, child of mine, like battle between armies, nor for a year or two like war between people, but a century or two; and for language that is so tiny measure of time like a moment or two for a man. Therefore, it is much better, child of mine, to lose all battles and wars than lose a language. If the language is lost so is the nation.

Man learns his language for one year and memorizes it as long as he lives. Nation memorizes its language as long as exist. Foreign language man learns for one year also. That is time he needs to gave up of his own and accept foreign. Dear child of mine that is the illness and the peril of language, when one man starts to give up his own one and accepts a foreign one, no matter if that is by his own will or to be obliged to.

Even I have been using the language as the most dangerous weapon in my battles, child of mine. Even I have been releasing the illnesses and perils onto their languages. During sieges and long after, I have been sending herdsman, peasants, artisans and vagabonds to flood their cities and villages as servants and slaves, merchants, bandits, libertines and promiscuous women. I have conquered more by language than by sword.

Be aware child of mine from those speaking different languages. They imperceptible arrive, you do not know when and how. They are bowing and getting away at every step. They are lovable and fawning like dogs cause, they do not know your language. You can never tell what are they thinking of you, and you cannot, they are mostly silent. The first ones coming to investigate the situation inform others and, here they are, they crawl over the night in constant rows like ants.

Some day you dawns surrounded by a mob of people speaking different languages from all sides.

You are too late finding out they are not mute; they have their own language, songs, dances and rites. They are becoming louder, they are not pleasing and begging but asking for and grabbing. You are staying at your own but in a foreign country. All you can is to drive them away, or you to run away which seems more possible.

Conqueror of land conquered that way needs no army, just to take what language won.

Language is harder than any rampart, child of mine. When all your ramparts and fortresses are broken by your enemy, do not desperate but listen to what is going on with your language. If the language remains intact, you do not have to worry. Send spies and merchants deep into the villages and cities, to observe. Where our word echoes and revolves like gold coins, there our country still exists in spite of the ruler, child of mine. Emperors are changing, states collapsing, but language and people stays; in such a way overcame parts of country and people will be rejoining some day with its source of language and home of people. Remember well, child of mine, not every overcoming or secession is of that danger for a nation as for a generation. It can harm only one


LEGACY OF THE CHURCHES

Man builds a house not only for himself but also for his children and grandchildren. That is the genesis of family and household.

Ruler builds a church not only for himself and his sons and grandchildren but also for his people that will attend it trough centuries. That is the genesis of state.

What remains after man is the house.

Church remains after the ruler.

House remains to children, church to people.

The church is like great ship sailing to deeper and further times and nations unknown to us, child of mine. Arriving to any century, it will bring us and reveal to our unborn descendants.

I feel happy and tranquil child of mine that now, my Studenica departed toward centuries. At the universal deluge of time only ships like Noah’s boat are capable of saving us from deepest abyss and oblivions. We, builders of those churches, shall be the navigators of time at those big ships, child of mine. I, Nemanja, the son of Zavida, I, Simeon the monk, am crying and mourning for those splendid people who couldn’t sail to present times onto their fragile structures, whose descendants we are. Their huts and hovels were weaker than they were and not able to bring them into our times. Their giant figures are coming in sight through unclear contours of stories and songs.

Into our solid churches that are capable of withstanding the horrible gusts of time, we immured ourselves. They are all of stone and marble, all the toughest in the world. We gave us into our churches, we wrote in our faith and we painted figures within. In Studenica, our far ancestors shall recognize us. They shall know who we are and what kind of we are. Moreover, they shall be proud to have us I know that, for sure. They shall be proud to be of Nemanjic’s tribe, child of mine.

When I decided to construct Studenica, you were only eight years old. I asked a skilled artisan how many years he would need to construct the church.

- Seven – he answered shortly.

- That is too long!

- If I build it for at least seven years, it will last for seven centuries at least.

- How many times it takes people to destroy it artisan?

- Neither people for seven days, time for seven centuries, the great head of a tribal state, but neither after seven days nor seven centuries you shall not lose Studenica, for I shall build it to be magnificent and very beautiful. I have seen more beautiful and magnificent ruins than completed structures, the great head of tribal state.

Build them for today; build them for tomorrow child of mine, but for centuries too. When you build for nation, build to be lasting and strong as nation itself.


LEGACY OF THE STATE

The country and the nation are not the same.

The nation is older than the state. The nation is older than everything is.

The nation lasts longer than the state. Exist before state and remains after.

One nation can live in different countries; also, one country can have different nations.

Now, here me well child of mine, listen attentively. One nation, one country, that was my intention and that remains, and I am handing it over to all of you as bequeath, from now to forever.

Serbs does not own their own country yet, they are scattered in all directions. Slavs swarmed lands from northern to eastern seas. They could become the greatest empire on the earth and the greatest people under the heaven. They remained and they still are just a multitude in foreign countries.

Every tribe is fighting to create its country. The great people of Slavs are scattered into minorities and smaller countries. Small country is like small fish in the sea that the big one swallows.

Big countries swallow smaller ones.

Serbia is too small in the mouth of big Byzantium, child of mine. It always protrudes out of entrails of big countries. As soon as that grasping has left us or we managed to escape, immediately the other grabbed us.

The biggest trouble was when everyone wanted to create a kingdom of his hill and valley.

I have decided to create the country of all Serbs, child of mine, so I have done it. I have not created a kingdom or empire. That is your inheritance. There are enough Serbs for the kingdom and the empire. In front of the great tribal state that I have created, bigger and smaller kingdoms and empires stepped back.

No village can dream to become an empire in my country. Now I have my own state confirmed by its own force, golden seals of kingdoms and empires and charters.

Guard to it, spread it and strengthen it. There are enough room to spread it and with whom to strengthen. In foreign countries around us live our fellow tribesmen with the same blood and the same language.

There are more Serbs out of our country than within. That has a meaning that the state of mine is just the beginning, child of mine.

That looks like when childbirth starts and only a head perceived.

Primordial birth pangs move within woman, head appears and part by part of body. That is the bearing of man.

ROŽDAETSJA ČELOVEK! (THE MAN IS BORN!)

Primordial instincts of many generations and tribes of same blood and same language began to gather in one state. That is the bearing of the nation. NAROD ROŽDAETSJA! (THE NATION IS BORN!)

The end of my life is near, child of mine. I can declare the most joyous proclamation: that is the born of the great child of mine, Serbia.

ROŽDAETSJA SERBIJA! (SERBIA IS BORN!)


LEGACY OF THE AUTHORITIES

To be the beggar is better than the czar in Serbia, child of mine.

Everywhere is the same. Czar dies, another came, the third kills him, the fourth dethrone the third, while the fifth is overthrow by the sixth, and so on until kingdoms and empires lasts. The worst is while neither empire nor czar exists, neither kingdom nor king, neither authority nor ruler, but only disbanded people as ours, ready to easily accept everyone for czar and master, and even readier to throw him of and renounce like of leper.

That cannot happen to beggar.

I have had the happiness and the unhappiness child of mine to govern the Serbia. The biggest achievement I was able to reach was to become the great head of a tribal state, which often meant to be the great servant of great emperors.

Foreign czars and emperors have not allowed us to establish our kingdom. Their greatest mercy started and ended with let me, the great head of a tribal state to govern with the people they could not cope with, because they neither can conquer us nor recognize as equal.

They needed someone to keep with this craggy people, to mobilize army for wars, to collect taxes and to protect them like human impenetrable barrier from other nations at borders of empire.

While we are doing it, we are fine; even we can become the great heads of a tribal state. If we think of our country and us, here they are with great army to punish us and demonstrate who the master is and who the servant at our own land is.

When they move into campaign against Serbia, they are more relying on our army commanders than onto theirs. Their messengers proclaim that czar will overturn the head of a tribal state and replace him with Serbian army commander or duke that helps the most.

One by one, Serbian traitors are crossing then on czar’s side; the great head of a tribal state is running away with some followers into deepest forests and caves or asking help from some other czar.

Nobody recognize the Serbian ruler, czar nor king, pope nor patriarch, either foreigner nor brother, or last cobbler of peasant shoe. There was a poor cobbler named Blaž at Dioklitija. Even he was not recognizing me. He was over his head of awl and a cord so he fled into the woods, roads, and gathers quite a bit associates all alike him. Therefore, decided Blaž to crown him and took over not only the woods and roads but also the whole country.

If a cobbler of peasant shoe can decide that, than duke or prince certainly can. At the end, everything remained as at the beginning, child of mine, only awl stayed without cobbler, principalities without princes and armies without dukes. God and all the saints were helping me.

What else our history is, child of mine, than constant appointing and removing of the rulers, innumerable attempts to establish authority and state.

When I was born I had everything, but my given name Nemanja means one that has no possessions. My second name is Stefan, the one who carries the wreath. Stefanos, the wreathed, but on my head fell no wreath or crown. Now I am Simeon the monk; from all possesses I have had now remains this feeble body and from governance my naked soul. The body I am handing over to the earth it walked on, and my sinful soul to you child of mine, to cleanse it with your prays in front of the judge of heavens.


LEGACY OF THE BOOK AND THE LETTERS

A nation without possessions of its own literacy and books, writers and book lovers cannot have name of the nation.

Say our biggest word, child of mine, say SRB and tell how long it rings in your ears. One moment it rings. Said word lasts only while saying it, than vanishes like breath from chests that made them.

Only written word can survive.

Say AZ (A – letter), BUKI (B), VJEDI (V), GLAGOL (G), and all these words will fly away as soon as said, like flock of birds. However, write them on the stone, wood, stags skin, frail peace of papyrus, and you will always find them where you left them. Written words last longer than mouth saying them, throats shouting and ears hearing them. Forever lasts. Even after thousand years of silence on stags and papyrus, they shall speak. I saw and read ancient books, child of mine, written thousand years ago. You are reading yourself the books written by heads turned into dust or hollow skulls long time ago.

Facts written down in the books are remaining after us.

We are groping in the dark of past and searching through far history something about us Serbians and not finding any trace of us, like we have never been existed. However, we have been. If we have never been than we could never be here now. We Serbians are children of Adam too. We existed but we have never been record. Only nations written in enter the history.

I am telling you, child of mine, speaking is like having conversation with the moment. Writing is like talking to centuries, so we must begin our great conversation with our descendants for the eternity, VO VJEKI VJEKOV, child of mine.

Letters are an odd seed, the best semen of every nation. It buds from the paper after thousand years, blooms into voice and word within picture and tale, thought and emotion, ancient hard-beats.

What a nation cannot with a sword and plow, with book and pencil it can, my dear child of mine. Quill of cane and light feather makes deeper furrows than plow or hoe.

GLAGOLJATI (to say mass – from the Glagolitic missal) means passing by; writing means eternity.

Nation without its own writers and bookbinders does not own the history in the past and life in the future. Sometimes foreign hands by foreign letters wrote about us in foreign books. Quill in a foreign hand is more dangerous than a sword, my son. We shall come into being as nation when we record about us in our books, by our language and letter.

Good writer values more than three severe dukes and three great cities.

Capable duke can conquer any city, other can seize. Nobody can subjugate the book; the book between hard covers saved many countries and cities.

Your hand is skilled for quill and paper, child of mine. God endowed and determined you first, to legible record us within books. Record us in the book of people of this world, for knowledge that we have always been, we are and we shall be.


LEGACY OF THE SERBIAN NAMES

Guard to the Serbian names, child of mine. They recognize us by them between other nations. The names of our fathers and mothers, our brothers and sisters, and our personal names. Rastko, my son, they are sacred, as these saintly we are having now.

The foreign clergymen, Greece and Latin, would gladly put us on their foreign names. They would gladly die out every Serbian name.

And what would it be if just all the Serbs put over their sacred names? I am afraid; there are will not be any more Serbs. And our fight is not to annihilate Serbs, Serbia and everything that is Serbian, but to praise. Splendid are the Serbian names.

Have, for example, child of mine, any Serbian name. For example, look at Dobrašin. Is there anything wrong with our Dobrašin? In that name, in Dobrašin, there is a lot of goodness and something more than goodness, because if it is not, it would be simply Good (name Dobrashin, caries the significance of being good). In such a way, our name Dobrilo, is not having a character that he is good, but that he makes other to be better. Child of mine, without our Dobre and Dobraša, Dobrašina and Dobreše, Dobrice and Dobrihne, Dobrila and Dobromila, Dobrimira and Dobrinka, Dobriše and Dobrivoja, Dobroja and Dobroje, Dobrohvala and Dobroljuba, Dobromira and Dobronje, Dobroslava and Dobrote, what would we be? The nation possesses such goodness in their names, can only be The People of God. By their names, they preserve goodness, longing for it and carrying throughout the world. We should not take away that goodness and touch their souls. Their names consider the soul of nation.

I am not saying, child of mine, that it is not worthy to name our people by holy names. It is good, but not with force and not to all of them. Like yeast and salt placed in flour, to slowly and a little bit, raise the bread, and be flavorful. Bread made with too much salt and yeast is not edible.

We, child of mine, have started the great fight for faith and Serbia. In that fight, we must not obtain religion and lose Serbia.

God, what are we doing? To these people we are taking away their old religion, destroying their shrines and old Gods. We have forbidden their old rites and habits, reversed their souls. Here, we started to replace their names with foreign once, although sacred. God, is there anything to left out of this people? Will it be, when we are done with all our intentions? Would wasteland and ruins be everything to left behind us? To destroy we have to, to destroy to be able to create. Oh God, let us to create as much as possible, and to destroy as less as possible.

Let us not touch their names. Their names are innocent and very beautiful. Let us add them some holy names, and that would be sufficient for God and nation. Why would we name them by foreign and unwilling names they would not recognize by significance? We should not take away from them what is the most precious and the most beautiful that Love devised and placed in their names. Those names hold their secret of life, Love and happiness. They devised the most beautiful names in the world, splendid with sound and full of sense. There would be too much sadness if there would not be any more Držislava, Vojislava and Vladimira in this country. And who would create our country, who would defend our country and who would govern our country? What should we get if our common shepherds and peasants became Anastazije, Teodore, Simonide, Veronike and Magdalene or some other saints and empresses? Would they be better than our Milica, Danica, Cvijeta or Tankoslava? How many joys are there in Radojka and Radovan, graciousness in Milinka and Milun, gloriousness in Slavna and Slavoljub, peacefulness in Tijana and Tihomir? What a thick hair are there within Kosara, charm within Miljana and Miljan, scent within Ljubica and Miomir, soul within Dušan and Dušica? Zlatko and Zlata with gold gild us. Srebrenka with silver silver-plate us. Who would defend us without too many Branislava? Who would expel the evil away if there would not be Zlogonje? Herbs without Biljana would not name herbs. Gentleness would not be known without Blaža, Blagoja and Blaženke. Who would guard tenderness without Grube, Grubiše and Grubana. Miroljub and Miroslav are kissing the peace. The most beautiful collection of poems could be composed of our names; they could be stringed like pearls! And what are we doing?

So, remember well, the child of mine: we shall never be the grater Christians if we have been the Serbs.

I admire the greatest power of our people to similar everything to them, to make Serbian everything. Do you see what is going on: we would like to Christianize Serbs, but they Serb the Christianity. Every nation has something to give to the Christianity. When they do, Christianity is no longer foreignism, but theirs. And more they gave, and more they accept through their souls, they become more and more Christian. I prefer a Serbed Christian than Christianized Serb, because this world has many Christians, but there is only one Serbian. From the East and from the West, many of them would like to adopt us and destroy through Christianity, and it’s up to us, child of mine, to survive in Christianity and stay who we are. That is the meaning of the faith. Our faith is Christian, our Christianity is Orthodox and our Orthodoxy is Serbian. That is it, and in that way, it shall be call. That is my faith and my VJERUJU (belief).

Source: https://www.google.rs/url?sa=t&rct=j...pQVaED34X2DU0A
 
Old October 5th, 2013 #2
Tiwaz
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Default Serb national-socialist and nationalist forces during WW2

SERB NATIONALIST FORCES DURING WW2
Kopaonik Wolf (Serbian Action)


Introduction
Just before the outbreak of the Second World war, the Serbian-led government of Yugoslavia (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) had become more pro-Axis. Under young King Petar and his uncle Prince Regent Pavle, Yugoslavia moved steadily away from France and towards Germany after the death of King Aleksandar, who was assassinated by Croatian terrorists in 1934. As early as February 1936, in the moments of growing animosity between Serbia and Croatia, Adolf Hitler promised to support the Yugoslav government of the Prime Minister Milan Stojadinovic. In 1937, Milan Stojadinovic - who was a staunch Serb nationalist - had visited Mussolini in Italy. Some say that Mussolini aroused his enthusiasm for Fascism thus Stojadinovic formed the squad of the "Green Shirts" for his party ('Yugoslav Radical Association', later 'Serbian Radical Party') and adopted the Aryan right-hand salute. However, when Stojadinovic took the title "Vodja" (Leader), Prince Pavle (an obvious anglophile) sacked him and replaced him with Dragisa Cvetkovic (Yugoslav Prime Minister from 1939 until 1941.) However, Cvetkovic mostly maintained the pro-Axis foreign policy.

Throughout the interwar years, Yugoslavia had attempted to build diplomatic links to many non-Axis countries such as France and Czechoslovakia. After 1933, it developed close ties through the Balkan Entente with Greece and Romania. However, during the late 1930s it was Hitler's Germany that was Yugoslavia's closest economic partner. Following the German annexation of Austria in 1938, the Yugoslav government on one hand tried to maintain a position of independence, while being increasingly pressured to ally itself more closely with Germany. Thus, Yugoslavia joined the Axis on March 24th, 1941, when it signed the Tripartite Pact in Vienna - an act which sparked off demonstrations (in Belgrade) secretly organised by the British secret service. After the signing of the Pact, Dragisa Cvetkovic assured Hitler that Yugoslavia "would be ready to maintain its position of independence and cooperate with the German Reich."
However, the Yugoslav Army soon overthrew the government of Prince Pavle and Dragisa Cvetkovic, and vowed to resist the Axis. It was an event which triggered the German invasion of April 1941. On March 26, 1941 two Yugoslav Army generals - Dusan Simovic and Bora Mirkovic - led a MI6-assisted putsch against the Cvetkovic's government. General Simovic was shortly after named as new Prime Minister. Hitler thought it was betrayal and decided to punish disloyal Yugoslavia.

Germany and its allies (Italy, Hungary and Bulgaria) invaded the country on April 6-7th, 1941. On 6th of April, Goebbels read the Order of the Day to the German Army of the East, in the name of the Fuhrer: "Soldiers of the Southeast Front - Since early this morning the German people are at war with the Belgrade Government of intrigue. We shall only lay down arms when this band of ruffians has been definitely and most emphatically eliminated, and the last Briton has left this part of the European Continent. These misled people realize that they must thank Britain for this situation, they must thank England, the greatest warmonger of all time. The German people can enter into this new struggle with the inner satisfaction that its leaders have done everything to bring about a peaceful settlement. [...] At this point the criminal usurpers of the new Belgrade Government took the power of the State unto themselves, which is a result of being in the pay of Churchill and Britain. As in the case of Poland, this new Belgrade Government has mobilized decrepit and old people into their inner Cabinet. Under these circumstances I was forced immediately to recall the German national colony within Yugoslav territory. [...] In addition, Yugoslavia for weeks has planned a general mobilization of its army in great secrecy. This is the answer to my eight-year-long effort to bring about closer co-operation and friendship with the Yugoslav people, a task that I have pursued most fastidiously."
After little resistance, the Germans captured the Serbian capital by April 12th - after first subjecting it to a massive air raid. The royal Yugoslav army fell to pieces, and by April 14th, the King and the new government had fled to Athens.


German invasion. The heroism and martyrdom of General Milan Nedic.

In April 1941, Yugoslavia was invaded and then disgracefully dismantled by Germany and it's allies. Province of Kosovo and Western Macedonia were put under Albanian control, Montenegro became an Italian protectorate, Hungary took control over some parts of Vojvodina (Northern Serbian province), Bulgaria took the rest of Macedonia and Ustashi Croatia annexed some Western Serbian provinces like Slavonia, West Srem, Kordun, Bania, Lika, etc.

On April 30th, 1941, the Germans formed a provisional Serbian government under the leadership of Milan Acimovic, a former Yugoslav Minister of the Interior. Near normality existed until the German conflict with the USSR. The subsequent terrorist actions of the communist gangs of "partisans" caused the Germans to worry that law and order would collapse in a critical strategic area. On August 29th, General Milan Nedic, a Serb WW1 vet and former Yugoslav Minister of War, was made President of a new Government of National Salvation. He tried to avoid this function but the Germans threatened that "their only alternative would be to bring in the Serbian opponents (i.e. Croats, Bulgarians, and Hungarians) to keep law and order". Good old General Nedic was well aware of the atrocities already committed by the Croat Ustashis and Bulgarians and was genuinely concerned that the Serbs might be exterminated. He asked for a force of 50,000 German soldiers to help him keep the peace, but he was forced to rely on units of Serb volunteers. Thus, Nedic assisted the formation of Serbian State Guard (SDS) and Serbian Volunteer Corps (SDK). Some say that recruiting advertisements for the SDS specified that "applicants must have no Jewish or gypsy blood."



Speaking of Jews, the government of General Nedic shortly afterwards organised the famous "Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition". The exhibition was opened on 22nd October 1941 in Belgrade and the central theme was the Jewish-Communist-Masonic plot for world domination. Besides the exhibits at the exhibition, a great amount of propaganda material was prepared: over 100 thousand various brochures, about 60 thousand posters, 100 thousand flyers, 108 thousand samples of 9 different types of envelopes, over 100 movie clips, four different postage stamps (left) etc. Organisers of Exhibition proudly announced: "This concept of exhibition will be unique not only in Serbia and the Balkans, not only in Europe, but in the world."
Nationalist newspapers such as "Obnova" ("Renewal") and "Nasa Borba" ("Our Struggle") praised this exhibit, explaining that the Jews were the ancient enemies of the Serbian people and that Serbs should not wait for the Germans to liberate them from the vicious influence of the Jews. A few months later, Serbian authorities issued postage stamps commemorating the opening of this very popular exhibit. These stamps, which juxtaposed Serbian national symbols portrayed Judaism as the source of the world evil.

As a result, in August 1942, Dr. Harald Turner (the chief of the German civil administration in Serbia) announced that Serbia was the only country in which the "Jewish question" was solved and that Belgrade was the "first city of a New Europe to be Judenfrei." Turner himself attributed this success to Serbian help. The fight against destructive Jewish influence had actually started six months before the German invasion when the government of Serbia issued legislation restricting Jewish participation in the economy and university enrolment.
As for the the Jews in the past, during four centuries Balkans have been ruled by the Ottoman Empire. In Serbia, Serb population suffered whilst Jewish communities had enjoyed all religious tolerance, internal autonomy, and equality before the Turkish occupational law. This ended with the breakup of the Turkish Empire and the renewal of the Serbian independnce. Soon after a Serbian rebellion against Turkish rule (1804), Jews were expelled from the interior of Serbia and prohibited from residing outside of Belgrade. In 1856 and 1861, Jews were further prohibited from travel for the purpose of trade and domicile.

Regarding relationship between Serbian governerment and Germany, I should mention that General Milan Nedic officially visited Adolf Hitler on September 19th 1943. He told German Fuhrer that he should not regard Serbian people and renegade communist gangs as identical. He informed Hitler that thousands of Serb patriots are voluntarily fighting to protect their country from the Red terrorists and Hitler showed his understanding and credit.

However, the fate of the heroic General in the end was sad and tragic indeed. At the end of the war, Allied forces captured him and sent him back to Serbia into the hands of the Communists. General Nedic never betrayed his ideals. He was brutally murdered on February 4th by one of the Communist chiefs, Aleksandar "Leka" Rankovic, and was buried in unknown place. Milan Nedic will always be remembered as one of the greatest Serb heroes in the long history of the Serbian nation. When many others would have given up after fleeing their country before German invasion, General Nedic stood up in the most dangerous times and continued to fight for salvation of Serbia. He sacrificed all for his people even his very life.


Dimitrije "Mita" Ljotic - his life and Struggle.

"We want to stop the continued moral decline of the nation. We want to restore the honour and our former high national principles." Dimitrije Ljotic (From an article titled "What We Are Fighting For",1935)



Milan Nedic's close friend and main associate was Dimitrije "Mita" Ljotic. Dimitrije Ljotic was the son of Vladimir Ljotic, Serbian consul in Salonica. Born August 12, 1891 in Belgrade (then Kingdom of Serbia), he spent many years in the Serb town of Smederevo. His distant cousins, among them Djordje "Ljota" Dimitrijevic (from where they got their family name) came from Blace (presently in region Toplica) in the first half of the 18th century. Dimitrije's grandfather, also named Dimitrije, was a great supporter of the Karadjordjevic dynasty. Dimirtije Ljotic completed elementary school and his first 3 years of high school in Smederevo, then he went to Salonica where he completed high school, staying with his father. Following his completion of middle school, he continued his studies in Law school, and at the same time studied at the Faculty of Law in Belgrade, where he obtained a diploma in July 1913.

Dimitrije was immediately recruited into the army on the eve of the Balkan wars. During recruitment, he refused to take the oath because, as they say, he was a young Tolstoyan "pacifist" at that time. The oath was also not taken because people of his age group were never mobilised. However, it was contrary to his nature to remain an idle observer so he enlisted as a volunteer in the military hospital where he stayed until the end of the 2nd Balkans war in 1913. At his own request he worked in the most hazardous and exacting wards - those dealing with cholera cases. His witnessing of human suffering frim the ravages if both war and disease left a deep and lasting impression on young Ljotic. He totally broke away from Tolstoyism.
In the autumn of 1913, at the end of the Balkan Wars, on the orders of King Peter I, Ljotic went to Paris to continue his post-graduate studies. There he stayed for 9 months, returning to Serbia following the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austro-Hungary in Sarajevo.



"Three things, other than school, kept me busy in Paris: Church, library, and museuma. To learn as much about the value of positive human knowledge and discover the relationship with Christianity". At the time, the young Ljotic was greatly influenced politically by the French nationalist politician Charles Maurras. Following the WW1, Maurras watched with great enthusiasm the great successes of the new Italian and German leaders. He was a great enemy of the Jews, secret societies, and fully understood capitalism, while favouring the corporate system. With his colleague Dode, Maurras formed in 1908 the national-royalist paper "French Action" where nationalist and right-wing ideas were put forward. Ljotic was influenced by these and other nationalist ideologies, which reinforced his deep patriotic and monarchist feelings and understanding of the Fascism. He read their literature and visited nationalist and royalist meetings. He often spoke these words "It is imperative that we are monarchists, because we have our own national dynasty".
Following the start of WW1, Ljotic returned to Serbia from Paris and was called up in the army. As a junior officer and later a reserve officer, he stayed in the army until June 1920 when he was demobilised. Until then Ljotic served on the frontline. In 1919 the army designated him a railway commander in Bakra, near the Italian border. At the time of his demobilisation, a general strike of railway workers erupted on April 16, 1920. The strike ended after one day following Ljotic's intervention, where he arrested 36 workers and handed them over to the authorities. The strike clearly had a communist character to it, organised by the communists with 2 goals: stop the flow of weapons against Hungary (Bela Kun), and to halt demobilisation in order to provoke confusion and unrest in the army among reservists.

In the Autumn of 1920, Ljotic married and joined the right-wing Radical Party. He lived in Smederevo where he opened a law office, finishing his law studies in September 1921 in Belgrade. In 1929 when the King's "dictatorship" was declared, Ljotic and many like-minded people were very happy and satisfied. In that he saw the Yugoslav state moving forward and also the open possibilities for his ideas and programs. As a supporter of the Karadjordjevics he requested from the King an audience. As a well-known monarchist, the King named Ljotic as Minister of Justice in the Petar Zivkovic's government which he joined on February 16, 1931. It is interesting that he always walked to work, not wanting to use his official car, which he had full rights to. The Ministry of Justice was involved in drafting a new constitution, which was later rejected by King Aleksandar. In the constitution, Ljotic's programs of corporate sytstems was included and solutions which were earlier adopted by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. But to King fundamental was proposal that people should elect their representatives by secret ballot, but the nomination of candidates, instead of coming from various political parties, would be made by regional electoral colleges, consisting of representatives of "stalezi" (professional and cultural organisations). Because the proposed constitution was not accepted, Ljotic resigned his post in protest which the King ratified. Ljotic then returned to his law career. When he resigned from his post, Ljotic asked the King his permission on whether he could continue his work in the political field, where he could obtain a followers for his ideas, the King agreed. Dimitrije Ljotic thus continued his political struggle, forming the Yugoslav National Movement ZBOR, and papers "Otadzbina" (Fatherland), "Zbor", and "Budjenje (Awakening)". He was smeared and attacked by all, as the government did not sympathize with his struggle against freemasonry, political parties, and corruption. Those in power systematically set out to suppress the growth of ZBOR.
Rallies and meetings were sabotaged, ZBOR publications were severely censored, and ZBOR members intimidated and persecuted. Whilst the battle continued against the corrupt authority, ZBOR found itself increasingly under attack from organised Communists who sought to disrupt meetings and discredit Ljotic and his followers by every possible means. On the other hand, Dimitrije Ljotic was one of the fircest opponents of communism, and the most popular anti-communist writer in Serbia and Yugoslavia. He was one of the first to recognise the role of the Jews in the communist revolution, the forcing of liberal-democracy and capitalism. Jews are, according to Ljotic, a cursed people. In his views, there are 4 methods the Jews have of ruling over other nations and the whole world, which include: Capitalism, Democracy, Freemasonry, and Marxism. He openly called for action against Jews and their products because they were and are the most cynical and dangerous opponents of Christian peoples, Christian values, and the Christian way of life. Ljotic was a devout Orthodox Christian. The great Orthodox spiritual leader and philosopher, Bishop Nikolaj Velimirovic, said of Mita that he is a "politician with a Cross". In his public letter entitled "Dear Comrades", Ljotic wrote: "Remember that beyond the sphere of Christ's influnce there is no basis for the saving of nations and of individuals, neither is there an alternative way, alternative truth and life. Everything else, no matter how attractive it could be, is the undoing of individuals as well as nations. Consequently, Zbor did not venture, nor did it want, nor was it able to choose some new way, some new basis, some new truth, some new mode of life beyond the way, the truth and the life of our Lord Jesus Christ..." All in all, Mita was indeed a true patriot, sincere Christian and a charismatic leader.




In the pre-WW2 years his political popularity as well as number of ZBOR followers rose steadily and when the war broke out he joined the Government of National Salvation. He was one of the closest friends and associates of General Milan Nedic (left, meeting Adolf Hitler). As he was during peaceful time the chairman and spiritual leader of the ZBOR movement, in the same way he lead the Serbian Volunteer Corps (SDK) during the war.
As the fact that Germany was losing the war became more evident and when the Red Army was closing in on Serbia, Ljotic sought to evolve an appropriate strategy. In 1944, he secretly proposed that all Serbian Nationalist forces (Serbian Volunteer Corps, Serbian State Guard and Serbian Chetniks from Serbia, Montenegro and Hercegovina) should evacuate to Slovenia, where (together with Slovenian nationalists) a United nationalist front to combat the communists would be formed. This plan was never realised because of disunity, and Serbian nationalists that escaped communist terror broke up and emigrated elsewhere. On April 23rd, 1945, while on his way to a meeting with nationalist and Church leaders, Dimitrije Ljotic was tragically killed in a car accident in Slovenia, where he was later buried.

ZBOR (Collective Combat Organisation of Work)

"We fight (...) because, although it looks like we live in cowardly times, we believe that many think as we do, are dedicated to these aims, ready for sacrifice, and confident of victory." Dimitrije Ljotic ("What We Are Fighting For",1935)
In the 1930's, in Serbia (and in Yugoslavia), there existed many nationalist groups and movements. Following his resignation from the Yugoslav government, Dimitrije Ljotic frequently organised meetings of a certain elite where the national problems, possibility of organising politically and later occupying government positions were discussed. In that group, among others were: Stevan Ivanic, Dr. Cedomir Jovanovic, lawyer Milan Acimovic, Dusan Stojanovic, Jagos Draskovic, Dusan Jankovic, Ljubomir Barac, engineer Ranko Vujic, Dragoslav Jefremovic, engineer Andrija Ljolja, Dr. Mirko Kosic, lawyer Nedeljko Brankovic and many others. At the time, "Otadzbina" (Fatherland) was their official bulletin. The 1st issue was published on February 25, 1934. Mita Ljotic at the time had one more activity of interest - collectivism. He formed the "Union of collective wheat farms" in Smederevo, and the "Farm Purchasing Collective". In his hometown of Smederevo he was maybe the most popular figure which was proven during one of his speeches, when he spoke through a microphone and when old and young, men and women, crowded the main street. The whole city came out that day to see and hear Mita. His speech was, they say, similar to a thunder storm... something never before seen in Smederevo. He was indeed a rousing orator.
In Serbia, before the assasination of King Aleksandar in Marseilles, a convention of all Nationalist groups was held in Belgrade. Delegates signed a statement declaring the fusion of all groups into one movement for the whole country. Three days after the signing of this document, the King was assassinated by Croatian terrorists in Marseilles on October 9, 1934. This further sped up the process of forming one, united Nationalist movement. On December 4 (1934), a 2nd meeting was held in Zagreb, where Ljotic's group recieved the main role. The groups reached a consensus by the end of December, and on January 6 (1935), symbolically in the apartment of Dr. Vinko Zoric in Ljubljana (Slovenia), a document was signed forming the Yugoslav National Movement ZBOR.

ZBOR in Serbian means "Gathering" but actually it was an abbreviation which stands for "Collective Combat Organisation of Work". Representatives of all groups joined Temporary Council under the leadership of Dimitrije Ljotic. The main synthesis introduced the program of the unified groups. According to this, the people would be actively involved in law making and would keep watch on the government by people's representatives, which would be the expression of discipline and political thought. Every government in a country must be complete and realistic, as must be its obligation. Only the King is 'untouchable'. Greater attention will be given to villages than it was until now. Further, all can be and should be employed, because there are jobs for all, and it is necessary that everyone works. To accomplish this, an agricultural plan must be implemented where every section must be inerconnected into one single unit. The government would then proceed to deal with this one unit. It is requested also that the government take care of the relationship between labour and capital in the goal of economic harmony. "In social and economic affairs, we fight for the right of the people to take affairs into their own hands. We demand that, in these respects, no general national policy be planned or carried out without the active participation of representatives of national professional organisations..." ("What We Are Fighting For",1935). ZBOR is against political parties and Parliamentary-democratic system. It is requested that all political parties be liquidated and best representatives of the sections (classes, occupations) would form the parliament and the national elite would form the government. "(Consequently) power must be made dependent on such personal answerability, that all weaklings and cowards, all scoundrels and egoists will flee to the rear, as once they fled from the war front. That is where they still belong. This is the first, and fundamental, principle of our struggle. We fight therefore for a national, popular politics, and against the politics of parties, cliques and factions." ("What We Are Fighting For",1935). It is also requested that secularism be scrapped in favour of a return of the Church to its rightful place in society to achieve Church-state harmony. Especially important is the racial-biological protection of people's strength and family, which was adequate with Germany's and Italy's national regimes' program.

ZBOR's emblem will be the sword behind shield with an ear of wheat on it. ZBOR members have their anthem, the song called "Vojska Smene" ("The Army of Change"). Ljotic's followers also had many mottos, such as "S verom u Boga i pobedu ZBORa" ("With faith in God and victory of ZBOR"), or "Nastavljamo borbu do pobede" ("We will continue the battle until victory"). ZBOR had its youth wing named Beli Orlovi ("White Eagles"), who were proven loyalists to the movement and its leader Ljotic, and who fought bravely on the streets against communist thugs in order to stop their infiltration into their schools and universities.



In the war years, thousands of ZBOR members formed the "Serbian Volunteer Corps" (SDK), commanded by General Kosta Musicki, that fought valiantly against communist "partisan" hordes the entire war. Dimitrije Ljotic was during the war, as in peace, a political and spiritual leader who inspired his fighters on the front lines. "Serbian Volunteers" (SDK), with other anti-Communists, were largely successful in driving the Communists from Serbia and scattering them throughout the surrounding province. Within several months, law and order were restored. In German military documents, "The Volunteers" are mentioned as one of the best anti-communist guerrilla formations in all of Europe. In November 1944, the part of Serbian Volunteer Corps was transferred to the Waffen-SS, renamed as the "Serbisches Freilligen Korps der SS" and fought as a Waffen-SS unit on the Eastern front until the end of the war.
Following Ljotic's sudden and tragic death, the fortunes of the Serb nationalists cause rapidly declined, and shortly afterwards the small part of the nationalist forces (Chetniks mostly) crossed to Italy. A larger group of several SDK regiments and most of the Slovenian "Domobran" units (together they numbered over 100.000 fighters), after some months of continous and bitter clashes with the communists, eventually retreated to Austria. Tragically, they were all captured by the Britons and forcibly transported back into Yugoslavia. At Tito's orders they were summarily machine-gunned and then thrown in the caves of Kocevski Rog and other places in Slovenia. It was three weeks after the war ended and a very few have succeeded in saving their lives.

Who were the Chetniks?



The original Chetniks (Chetnik, Cetnik = trooper) were Serb paramilitaries founded to protect the Serb population of Macedonia from the Turks and Albanians, in the years after 1903. Later there were also Chetnik battalions (special forces) in the Royal Yugoslav Army.

In 1941, when Germans occupeid Serbia, General Dragoslav "Draza" Mihailovic (ex-Yugoslav Minister of War) formed the new Chetnic movement to resist the German occupation and fight against the communist gangs of "partisans". Mihailovic's Chetniks should, in fact, be called the "Royal Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland" (Kraljevska Jugoslovenska Vojska u Otadzbini) - a body founded on May 13th, 1941. However, as they say, Chetnics were later forced to cooperate with the Germans.

A veteran of the Balkan and First World War, Mihailovic was greatly affected by the Toplica Rising of 1917. It was put down in the most brutal way - 35,000 being killed - and [to Mihailovic] it proved the futility of guerilla forces taking on regulars head to head, and bred in him a determination that civilians should be spared as much suffering as possible.
Although Mihailovic emerged as Yugoslav King Peter's Minister for War, he was only one of several peoples leaders in 1941. Groups sprang up all over Kingdom of Yugoslavia, often having nothing to do with him in the first instance. Many groups were formed just to defend Serb population from the Croatian Ustashas, others to protect a particular village etc. Actually, the Chetniks volunteer forces were first organised in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Other groups also developed in Dalmatia and Montenegro. It took Mihailovic a year to win their allegiance.

Duke Momcilo Djujic is well-known and was one of the most influental Chetnik commanders outside central Serbia. He was born on February 27, 1907 in the village of Kovacic near the town of Knin (in todays Croatia). After graduating from high school in Knin in 1924, he attended a school of higher education in Sibenik, and then entered the Serbian Orthodox theological seminary in Sremski Karlovci in 1929. Ordained in 1933, he served as village priest in Strmica, a small Serb community a few kilometers north of Knin, and began participating in local Chetnik activities as early as 1935, when the first armed associations or groups were founded in the surrounding area.
Politically, Djujic gravitated toward the Serb nationalist ideas and by 1941 he was an ardent supporter and follower of Dimitrije Ljotic and ZBOR. These leanings greatly facilitated Djujic's initial contacts with the Italian forces in April 1941. The first armed Chetnik groups in the Knin area gradually evolved into companies, battalions and regiments, and at the end of February 1942 the Dinara Chetnik Division was formed by Djujic to take command and over this rapidly growing force.

Back to Dragoslav Mihailovic... He based an all-Chetnic command in Serbia from where he directed his forces to avoid large-scale fighting with the Germans and Italians and wait for an Allied invasion that would "liberate Yugoslavia and restore the monarchy." By 1944 the Allies withdrew their support. Sir Julian Amery, who held a senior position in the SOE in Cairo, commented in the "Sword and the Shield":
"When we saw that the Russians were going to liberate Yugoslavia we had to drop Mihailovic but, instead of saying 'you're very welcome to come out' - we did invite him out - we justified changing sides by branding his supportors as fellow travellers of the nazis which they never were. Incredibly, Mihailovic survived for more than a year after the Communist takeover. He remained in Yugoslavia throughout, and refused to flee, quoting Danton 'You cannot carry your country with you on the soles of your shoes'."
At the end of war, Chetniks in central Serbia were forced out from their headquarters at Ravna Gora. Mihailovic and his few remaining followers were captured by the communists (March 1946) and brought to Belgrade, where they were tried and executed.
In 1945, most Chetnic forces withdrew to Bosnia in a desperate attempt to form a "united Chetnic army". Frozen and ravaged by typhus, some retreated northward into Slovenia and Italy, but most - an estimated 90,000 - died in Bosnia.
Contrary to general belief, Mihailovic was not a genuine Serb nationalist. He was commander-in-chief of the Yugoslav Army, fighting to establish a constitutional Yugoslav monarchy. He was more a Yugoslav nationalist.

In more recent years Chetniks are a very much different as a political movement. In the last 10 years they were fighting to protect Serb interests only as Ex-Yugoslavia falls apart.

In closing...

In closing I would like to mention that during WW2, Serb nationalists and anti-Communist forces enjoyed sincere and active support from the Serbian Orthodox Church. I will leave you with the words of Bishop Nikolai Velimirovic who's one of the most influential church leaders and Orthodox philosphers after Saint Sava (the founder of the Serbian Orthodox Church). Bishop Nikolai, who is Saint to many Orthodox believing Serbs, wrote: "Europe is presently the main battlefield of the Jew and his father, the devil, against the heavenly Father and his only begotten Son . . . (Jews) first need to become legally equal with Christians in order to repress Christianity next, turn Christians into atheist, and step on their necks. All the modern European slogans have been made up by Jews - the crucifiers of Christ: democracy, strikes, socialism atheism, tolerance of all religions, pacifism, universal revolution, capitalism and communism... All this has been done with the intention to eliminate Christ . . . You should think about this, my Serbian brethren, and correspondingly correct your thoughts, desires and acts." (Bishop Nikolai Velimirovic in his book "Addresses to the Serbian people - Through the Prison Window"). Source.
 
Old October 5th, 2013 #3
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Default Battle on Kosovo Field, 1389.

http://www.spc.rs/eng/system/files/u5/lazar_0.jpg

Persons and happenings before the battle with direct influence on the whole battle.

Princ Lazar - Defender Of Kosovo
and King Dusan The Powerful
Prince Lazar was born in 1329 in Prilepac to the aristocrat family Hrebeljanovic. His father Pribac was a Logotet-secretary doing very confidential work for King Dusan the Powerful in the royal palace. Young Lazar was raised in the palace, and was respected by the King who entrusted him with the rule of two parts of his kingdom: Srem and Macva. Lazar married Milica the daughter of an important aristocrat named Vratko also known as Yug Bogdan - a very wise and honorable man from the Nemanjic family. Lazar had three sons: Stevan, Vuk and Lazar and five daughters: Jelena, Mara, Despa, Vukosava and Mileva.

King Dusan the Powerful died unexpectantly in 1355 at the age of 48. This led to a weakening of Serbia's central government. Many dukes used this opportunity to secede from the Kingdom with the land that had been entrusted to them. The young son of Dusan Uros took over the throne and soon was killed. Vukasin Mrnjacevic proclaimed himself the King of Serbia. At this time, Turks were advancing toward the Kingdom of Serbia. In a battle on the river Marica in 1371, Vukasin was killed leaving behind him a weakened, poor and torn Serbia. Serbia was in desperate need of a gifted statesman, rich in virtue and deserving of God's Grace: a man similar to St.Sava and his father St. Stefan Nemanja who had founded the Serbian state. The Church recognized just such a man in Prince Lazar. His talent for leadership, wisdom and experience lifted him above those who would seize the throne by force and sought their own glory and importance.

Prince Lazar, first sought to consolidate and strengthen the Kingdom. As was the custom of that day and age, he married his daughters to the rebellious Serbian aristocrats. This enlarged and stabilized Serbia. Having thus secured the loyalty of dissident aristocrats, Prince Lazar turned to those countries which bordered his own, seeking to deepen Serbia's relationship with them.

At this time, the Serbian Orthodox Church was in a dispute with the Patriarch of Constantinople. King Dusan the Powerful wanted Serbia to have an independent Church. He single-handedly sought to elevate the Serbian archbishop to the level of a patriarch. The Patriarch of Constantinople utterly rejected this act and broke relations with the Church in Serbia. This was a very serious problem and one which King Lazar managed to solve by reconciling the Serbian Church and that of Constantinople. It was a result of this reconciliation that gave the Serbian Church its first canonical Patriarch.

The expansion of that Ottoman state, and increasingly frequent Turkish raids into his land, warned Prince Lazar that the time for a decisive battle was drawing near. Lengthy preparation on both sides preceded this confrontation. The fact that the armies were led by the Turkish ruler Murad 1 and by King Lazar of Serbia illustrates the importance of this battle. It was decided that the site of the battle would be a field in Kosovo (Kosovo Polje).

Prince Lazar knew that his chances against the Turkish aggressor were small and on the eve of the Battle of Kosovo he gathered his upper aristocracy and asked if they should fight for the Holy cross and Golden Freedom or surrender to their adversaries and live as slaves of the Muslims. They had to chose between the Heavenly Kingdom and earthly one. In the true spirit of Christianity they preferred to place their hope in Christ and Eternal Life. The Prince and all of this warriors took Holy communion and went into battle on Saint Vitus Day, Tuesday June 15th 1389.

St. Prince Lazar on a 19c. Serbian painting





Army composition
It is not certain how large the armies were, especially as later sources tend to exaggerate on their size, launching it into the hundreds of thousands.
Murad's army might have numbered 27-40,000. Taking the 40,000 estimate, it probably included some 5,000 Janissaries, 2,500 of Murad's cavalry guard, 6,000 sipahis, 20,000 azaps and akincis and 8,000 of his vassals Lazar's might have been 12-30,000. Taking the estimate of 25,000, some 15,000 were under Lazar's command, 5,000 Vuk's, and as many of Vlatko's. Of those, several thousands were cavalry, but perhaps only several hundreds were clad in full plate armor. Both armies included some foreign troops: for example, the Serbian force included the Croatian ban Ivan Palinza with a small number of troops, probably as a part of Bosnian contingent while the Turkish army was helped by the Serbian noble Konstantin Dejanovic. This led some authors to describe the armies as coalitions.


Troop disposition
The armies met at Kosovo field. The center of the Turkish army was led by Murad, while his son Bayezid was on the right wing and Yakub on the left. Around 1,000 archers were in the first line of the wings, followed with azap and then akinci; in the front of the center were janissary, behind whom was Murad, surrounded by his cavalry guard; finally, the supply train was at the rear, guarded by a small number of troops. The Serbian army had Lazar at the center, Vuk on the right wing and Vlatko on the left. In the front of the Serbian army were placed the cavalry, with the infantry to the rear. While parallel, the dispositions were not symmetric, as Serbian center overlapped the Turkish


The Battle
The battle started with Turkish archers shooting at the Serbian cavalry, which then moved into the attack. They managed to break through the Turkish left wing, but were not as successful against the center and the right wing. The Serbs initially gained the advantage after their first charge, which heavily damaged the Turkish wing commanded by Jakub Celebi. In the center, the Serbian fighters managed to push the Ottoman forces back with only Bayezid's wing holding off the forces commanded by Vlatko Vukovic. The Ottomans, in a counter-attack, pushed the Balkan forces back and prevailed later in the day. Bayezid I, who would after the battle become the Ottoman sultan, gained his nickname "the thunderbolt" in this battle, after leading the decisive counter-attack. In the main, numbers of Turkish military strength (army) and better weapons eventually won them the day.


Murad's Death
Based on the Turkish historical records, it is believed that the Sultan was killed by Milo Obilić, who was pretending to be dead, while the Sultan was walking in the battlefield after the battle. On the other hand, according to Serbian records he was assassinated by Milo Obilić, who made his way into the Turkish camp on the pretext of being a deserter and knelt before the Sultan. He stabbed him in the stomach while about to kneel before him. Milo Obilić was immediately killed by the Sultan's bodyguards.


painted by Petar Radicevic 1987

http://www.kosovo.net/kosbitka2.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...Kosovo1389.jpg

http://www.info-regenten.de/regent/r...-Bayezid-I.jpg

http://1389blog.com/pix/The-Kosovo-Maiden.jpg


by Mark Gottfried (1972)


The Serbian culture endured through five centuries of Turkish occupation, although the Turks offered security and prosperity, for conversion to Turkish life styles. This Serbian culture was retarded for five centuries, after the Serbian defeat on the plain of Kosovo.
From a culture that led Europe and the Balkans during the Medieval period, the Serbian culture degenerated and stagnated, to the point that when it regained its freedom it had centuries to recover. The Turkish victory at Kosovo, was not as much political as it was cultural. "Turkish historians lay more stress on the Battle of Maritza eighteen years before, which they call Serb Sindin (Serbian defeat)." The military destiny of Serbia was sealed at Maritza. Contemporary chroniclers, without the benefit of hindsight, felt that Kosovo was only one of a series of bloody engagements, leading to the collapse of the Serbian kingdom.

What then is the importance of the Battle of Kosovo? It was a cultural defeat, a religious defeat. It became the symbol of Turkish power and Serbian defeat, not to be forgotten . . . revenge was always over the horizon. The grand Serbian culture, which flourished under Tzar's Dushan and Milutin, was only a memory, after Serbia's knights, armies and hopes died at the field of Kosovo.
"The State was destroyed, but underneath was born from pain and from battle a strong people." It was this strong people, that clung to their own culture, or a remnant of it against time and the Turks. The Battle at Kosovo Polje is one of the focal points of their memories, and as such played a vital role in the Serbian culture.

The binding force in Serbian Culture is its national religion. When in 1190 Nemanja set up a state, from the chaos of the third crusade, the people's religion was not a national concern. His son, now known as St. Sava, brought the Eastern Orthodox Church to Serbia, and set up an oriental culture, leaning toward Byzantium. St. Sava also separated the church from Byzantine rule, and placed the church establishment in the service of the nation. This was the first national church, untied to either Greek Orthodox or Roman dictates. This policy of separation was continued through Tzar Dushan's reign (1331-1355) when he planned and executed all possible activities halting the influence of the Roman church in his state.

This national religion needed a base, or platform to be effective. The monastery was "chosen" for this purpose. In fact by 1430 there were 3,000 monasteries and churches in Serbia. These institutions were the basic educational and cultural establishments of their day. An example of the high culture prevalent in the monasteries at the end of the thirteenth century, Queen Jelena founded a type of "womans' home keeping school" at Brnjeval near today's Kosovska Mitrovica. The building and maintaining of monasteries and church institutions are shown in many of the ballads from the period, "The Building of Ravanitsa" (a monastery) is one example. This poem speaks of the construction of a church institution as a duty of the Tzar.

In the Serbian society literacy was limited to a narrow circle, mainly religious in character. However, there are proofs that literacy often passed the bounds of the religion sector. An example of the literature of the time is a biography of St. Sava written by Monk Teodisije in the thirteenth through fourteenth centuries. The monasteries besides being centers of education and literature were centers of art.
In these monasteries were created beautiful frescos, paintings, tapestries and handicrafts. The art of Serbia of the thirteenth century is considered independent and "convincingly superior" to the art of Byzantium. "On the vast territory of Dusan's empire there were a number of smaller provincial centers of art . . . in spite of their local character, the works produced there had two great assets; they were numerous and of high technical accomplishment," The architecture of the monasteries also represents a special achievement for its time.
Other cultural achievements of the Serbs lie in the field of politics and government. Militarily the Serbs had been on the rise continually and under Tzar Dushan they controlled Serbia, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Albania and parts of Greece. At the time of his death, Tzar Dushan was planning to resist the Turks and attack Constantinople. Under Tzars Milutin through Dushan, Serbia was moving toward its real mission as a nation with wealth and power. The advances were not only in military spheres. Tzar Dushan also gave to the Serbs a law which has importance to the Serbs and to Southern Slave in general. This law, the Zakonk, was born of Byzantine and other prevalent laws of the time, and can be said to be a picture of the Serbian social structure of justice based on law.
After Dushan's death the military strength of the autocracy decreased. In 1377 Knez Lazar (ruler of Serbia) was forced to accept the crowning of Tvrtka I at Milesevo (St. Sava's grave) making him (Tvrtka I) king of Bosnia, with rights over Serbia. The clash with the Turks found the Serbs at the teak of their national feeling and culture.

When fourteenth century Serbia achieved its political peak most European countries were second-rate powers. Individual nation states were only evolving in Europe at the time when Serbia's star was already falling. The "countries" of Europe were still subservient to the church of Rome, until the seventeenth century, while Serbia developed a national church in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. This superior culture faced the Ottoman Turks. This was a clash of not only military strength, but of faiths and ways of life.

Though the major motivating forces were political, cultural and religious feelings and motives also played a part in the battle of Kosovo. "The Turkish system of occupying conquered countries with military colonies and carrying off the original inhabitants, excited a great national opposition in the year 1389." This policy which would destroy the culture and religion of Serbia as well as the state, enraged the people. They felt that "the Ottomans were alien barbarians with a lesser civilization and a religion totally different from that of the conquered." Both the Turks and Serbs were motivated by religious Ideals; the Turks for Islam, and the Serbs for Christianity.

Barring other motives, both parties were politically opposed. The conflict had begun with small marauding raids the Turks pushed across the Dardanelles. When they established a foothold in the Balkans the conflict ". . . progressed too more serious . . . and finally to a full scale campaign."
It is felt that Tzar Dushan might have held back the Turks, but at his death his empire fragmented. Lacking a common culture or political tradition the empire collapsed, leaving. Its remnants open to Turkish encroachment.

________________


"Of course the great task for the Serbian statesman of that time was, how to stem the further progress of the Ottoman Turks and drive them back to Asia." Knez Lazar as elected chief of Serbia tried to unify tie country and stop the Turks. "While Prince Lazar was Infusing fresh vigor into the Serbian State, the danger from the Turks was becoming increasingly pressing." Knez Lazar began to form a Christian league against the Turks. It was revealed to Sultan Murad, who promptly invaded Bulgaria and Serbia to destroy the Christian league. The political desires of the two nations were diametrically opposed; the Turks wanted Serbian lands, and the Serbs survival.

The final military struggle, the clash at Kosovo, was a conflict of both empires, economic systems, religions and hopes. Bulgaria was subdued first and then in 1339 Amurath (Murad I) marched against Knez Lazar, ruler of Serbia. "A great assault on Serbia was organized by the Sultan Murad I . . . he penetrated to the field of Kosovo." "In great haste he (Lazar) had to summon his noblemen to hurry with their retinues to Kosovo to meet the Turkish army." Though Knez Lazar called all his vassals, only some came, some were late, and some never started.

Lazar wished to delay the battle, hoping more reinforcements would arrive, but on July 15 (28), 1389 the Turks surprised the Serbs with an unexpected attack. (The date discrepancy is due to the acceptance of the Gregorian calendar by the Serbs later than Europe). The Serbs led an army of Bulgarians, Bosnians, Skepitars of Albania, with men from Hungry, Wallachia and Poland. It appeared that in the beginning, the Turks with an array of their vassals, were losing. In truth, history knows little or nothing of the facts. It appears that the battle was one of courage rather than tactics.

"It was not a fight to the bitter end." Before the battle started, it was lost, for the Serbs fearing treachery, lost courage. "Victory is never won by those who feel they are going to lose." "All the legends agree in suggesting that the Issue of the battle was determined by treason. A certain Vuk Brankovitch Is represented as the Serbian Judas who led his forces over to the enemy at the crucial moment." However, the treachery of Vuk Brankovic is not a proven historical fact. "Treachery is always the excuse of the vanquished, for it assuages the bitterness of defeat."

Beyond excuses and legend, both leaders, Knez Lazar and Sultan Amurath were killed during the battle. We know nothing historically of how either leader died. It is said that Murad was killed by a false deserter, and that dying he had Knez Lazar brought before him and beheaded. However, that is only legend. At the reports of Murads death the western world thought that Serbia had won, but his death did not affect the course of the battle except that "It considerably increased the severity of Bayazids' treatment of his Serbian captives."
This led to the battle's major political importance, for Bayazid, Murad's heir, killed most of the Serbian princes and nobles either in battle, beheaded them immediately after it, as revenge for his father's death.
The two new rulers, Bayazid of the Ottoman's and Stephan Lazarovitch of the Serbs, made peace. The truce of peace which followed ". . . established the inferior position of the Serbians." "The terms of the treaty then agreed to were very moderate. Instead of being incorporated In the Ottoman Empire . . . Serbia was to be an autonomous state under vassalage to the Ottoman Empire . . . " It is known that this liberal peace came from the "enforced" marriage of Stephan's sister Oliva to Bayazid.

After the battle of Kosovo the Serbs did not deceive themselves, It was the death-knell to independence. It destroyed all that was done in the way of Statehood and freedoms since the eleventh century and Nemanja. Even further destruction came in 1459 when Serbia was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire proper. After that time Serbia was no longer a true state.

__________________


"The battle of Kosovo, one of the most decisive moments in the century-long struggle of the Serbs against the Turks, quickly became the subject of legend." The poets, bards or minstrels of Serbia were touched to their poetic souls, and wrote the legend of Kosovo. They were affected because there was a foreigner, a conqueror, an occupier in their land. The legends, or poems are probably the most important effect, political or cultural that the battle at Kosovo Polje had. They are important because they helped the Serbs to remember the battle and what their past was. The greatness of the legends or poems lies in their honesty. The guslari (minstrels) did not hide the weaknesses which led to the defeat, but glorified them. "...what amazes one is the curious fact that the very folk songs that glorify Saint Lazar and lament Kosova reveal a frank and true picture of the events and prove how little warrant there is for the legend."
The legends were needed, however, to help maintain the culture of the Serbs. The Turkish victory cut off and destroyed the work of Serbia's leaders and founders, leaving the people alienated from their culture. To maintain a remnant of their culture, the guslari sung their songs of defeat and of God's will to the people. As there are few cultural or artistic expressions as powerful as the guslari, they had a great impact on their time.

In the poems are all the social relationships, portrayed and examined, the culture idealized. All that was good remembered, the bad forgotten. For cultural reasons these legends were essential. If not for the legends, the Serbian people might have forgotten their past and adapted Turkish life styles. The epic poems prevented their forgetting the past, as the poems taught in the schools, filled the minds of the people with heroes, and a heritage. Their religion also glorified in the epics also needed a tool for survival, and the legends complied. Once again the legends helped the people remember their religion, and to be proud of the heritage they possessed.

In the legends themselves are suggestions ". . . for a future struggle against the Turks . . . " This led to the peoples hope for a future, thus for survival. The poems glorify the defeat as an act of God. They assuage the bitterness of defeat by using scapegoats, and traitors. In addition they bring to mind the "good old days" of heroes and heroines fighting for their country, king, and Christianity.
These epics "helped the Christian peasant to preserve his ethnic individuality and his faith." The memories are still strong, ". . . and in token of mourning for that great national calamity (the Watterloo of the Serbian Empire) the Montenegrins still wear a black band on their caps . . . Murad's heart is still preserved on the spot where he died; Lazar's shroud is still treasured by the Hungarian Serbs in the monastery of Vrdnik; and in many a lonely village the minstrel sings to the sound of the gusle the melancholy legend of Kosova." It Is these memories which prevented the Serbs from self-pity, but steeled them against submission. When they needed support most the epics which ". . . so majestically touched on the defeated Serbian nation . . . " gave them the strength to withstand the slavery and look toward freedom. Even today, years later, upon the rise of modern Serbian nationalism Kosovo became the symbol for their national Identity.

The quality of the epics can also be spoken of. "In their description of the events, especially where the poets narrated the terrible tortures during battle and afterwards, they bring to mind the Italian poet Dante's Divine Comedy which also dates between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries." The Divine Comedy Is considered one of the Western world's greatest classics. It was also said of the poems that they were as good as, If not better than any Greek or Latin poems ever written. This was said by Jurag Sisgoric (1487) in his work De Situ Illyriae et civitate Sibenici.

These legends and poems held the Serbian people together in their memories of pride and honor. The poems can be said to be one of the major causes for Serbia's continued cultural and religious survival. However, the battle of Kosovo also had direct negative effects on the Serbian people. There was a terrible set back of their language, civilization, nationality, religion and of all they held dear. This great catastrophe tested Serbian moral, religious, and physical strength.
After the battle of Kosovo the Turks were tolerant of religion except when it went into political spheres or sided with rebels. Since there were rebellions and struggles and since the church worked with the rebellious people, she also suffered the wrath of the Turks. Of the 3,000 different Church institutions half were destroyed or desecrated by the nineteenth century.
Despite these persecutions the Serbian faith in their national religion made it impossible for Islam to take over as it had in Bosnia, Albania, Macedonia and Bulgaria. In Serbia the Turks ruled but could not destroy its national identity.
Though under difficult conditions Stephan Lazarovitch gathered together the intelligencia of Serbia to a monastery at Velika Morava, called Resava. In this monastery scribes and translators worked, and frescos covered the walls. Between Knez Lazar and his son the Moravska school of art and studies developed in the Velika Morava area.

__________________

Other contributions to the culture of Serbia after Kosovo mainly related to the battle, commemorating it, and its heroes, were: Konstantin Mihajiovic wrote a biography of Stephan Lazarovic; and the nuns Jefinije and Grigorije who made a tapestry dedicated to the death of Knez Lazar, which is an object of great cultural importance to medieval art in general.
After Kosovo, Serbian books were printed at Gorazde, Gracanica, Rujio, Milesvo, Beograde and Skadar. The Turks persecuted and destroyed these publishers because they served the Serbian national purpose. The situation after the battle was so bad for the people, that in a letter from a Dubrovnik family to Serbian friends, the Serbians were invited to go to Dubrovnik, "If they could not support themselves."

Despite the persecutions and bad economic conditions, the Serbian people always had a feeling of optimism, remembering past glories and looking to future greatness. They survived five centuries of alien subjugation. During those five centuries neither culture advanced, both Serbs and Turks remained in a pocket of Feudal, Medieval life, till the nineteenth century. This stagnated culture, the culture of the Serbs held down, from flourishing as it had, sprang back to life when it regained its freedom. Although the Serbs missed both renaissance and enlightenment, due to the Turkish occupation, they rapidly advanced, once freed, due to the heritage which they so zealously protected through some five centuries.

They are advancing because of their spirit and hopes. They are advancing because of their pride and convictions. They are advancing because they remember, the humiliation of their fathers. Their memory is long, but vital and strong. It is this memory of the battle of Kosovo that kept the Serbian culture alive.
The Battle of Kosovo was a military loss to the Serbs. They lost country, language, and hopes. Yet from this loss came the epic poems of Serbia, the stories of their past. I feel that this loss of a battle enabled the Serbs to win the war . . . of cultural survival.


Glossary of Serbian elite!



PERSONS

Jug Bogdan
["yoog bohg-DAHN"]. An elderly Serbian nobleman. Father of Milica and the Jugovići. (In the Serbian text the name is "Bogdan-Jue".)


Vuk Brankovitch
Vuk Branković ["vook"]. A Serbian nobleman, portrayed as a traitor in the epics. Before the battle of Kosovo, he was an ally of Lazar Hrebeljanović and was married to one of Lazar's daughters. According to the epics he betrayed Lazar by abandoning him during the battle. Whether this betrayal actually took place cannot be determined. Ottoman accounts report that Branković fought bravely and did not retreat until after the battle was lost.
Branković was the most prominent nobleman to survive the war, and he sought to become the next Serbian leader. That brought him into rivalry with Lazar's widow Milica and her son Stefan Lazarević. The latter allied with the Ottoman empire, and Branković was defeated. Although the Lazarević-Branković rivalry lasted only a few years, it is commonly assumed that the epic poems about Kosovo originated during these years as pro-Lazarević propaganda, thus explaining the portrayal of Lazar as a saint and Branković as a traitor.


Damian
One of the Jugovići.


Goko
Gojko. A fictitious character, brother of Vukain and Ugljea of the Mrnjavčević family. In the poems presented here, Gojko gets only a passing mention. Another poem not included here ("Uro and the Mrljavečevići"), gives an unflattering portrayal of the other two brothers, in which they are contrasted with the admirable Gojko.


Jugovitch
Jugović, plural Jugovići ["YOO-go-vee-chee"], "sons of Jug". Sons of Jug Bogdan, brothers of Milica; in the poems there are nine of them. Although Milica is a genuine historical figure, the Jugović brothers in the poems are fictitious. In another poem, about the building of Ravanica, not included here, the Jugovići are portrayed unfavorably.


Ivan Kossanchitch
Ivan Kosančić. A fictitious character. In the poems he is a Serb nobleman allied with Lazar.


Tsar Lazar
Lazar Hrebeljanović ["la-ZAR khreb-el-YAH-no-vich"]. Hero of the Kosovo epics. A powerful nobleman from the northern part of Serbia. He prevailed in the civil wars of the 1360s and 1370s. After Uro and Vukain were killed in the battle of Marica, Lazar emerged as the de facto king of Serbia. He led the Serbians in the battle of Kosovo, where he was killed. In the poems Lazar is given the title of "tsar", but his real title was "knez" (prince).


Mernyachevitchi
Mrnjavčevići ["murn-YAHV-cheh-vee-chee"], "sons of Mrnava". Mrnava's identity is unknown; his sons were Vukain and Ugljea. A third brother named in the poems, Goko, is a fictitious character.


Tsaritsa Militsa
Milica. Wife of Lazar Hrebeljanović. In the poems Militsa is given the title "tsaritsa", but since Lazar was never named tsar, Militsa was never really a tsaritsa either. After Lazar died in the defeat at Kosovo, Milica became regent for their son Stefan Lazarević. For the next few years, she was in a bitter political rivalry with Vuk Branković, the most prominent Serb nobleman who survived the battle. Although the rivalry lasted only a few years, it is commonly assumed that the epic poems about Kosovo originated during these years as pro-Lazarević propaganda, thus explaining the portrayal of Lazar as a saint and Branković as a traitor.


Murad
Murad I. Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, 1360-89, leader of the Ottoman forces at Kosovo. On the evening before the battle, Murad was murdered by Milo Obilić, a Serb who had entered the Ottoman camp representing himself as a deserter. The sultan's death was kept secret and not revealed until after the battle was over.


Musitch Stefan
Stefan Muić. A Serbian nobleman, allied with Lazar Hrebeljanović.


Milosh Obilitch
Milo Obilić. According to the poems, Milo was the greatest of Lazar's warriors, a rival of Vuk Branković, and the man who slew the Ottoman Sultan Murad. One of the poems makes Milo a participant in the battle at Kosovo, while another legend says that he infiltrated the Turkish camp and murdered Murad in his tent. A 17th century Italian historian [Orbini, probably following Serbian oral tradition] reports that a Serb named Milo Obilić did indeed desert (or pretend to desert) to the Ottoman side. When brought before the Sultan, Obilić produced a concealed dagger and assassinated the sultan. I know of no references to Milo Obilić outside of the context of the Kosovo battle.


I believe that some depictions of Milo in the poems have conflated him with George Balić, a leading Serbian nobleman of the time. George Balić is known to have been a rival of Vuk Branković (the two families had been traditional enemies) and he, like Vuk, married one of Lazar's daughters. The Balić family's lands were in the west (in what is now Montenegro). George Balić submitted to Ottoman suzerainty a few years prior to Kosovo and did not participate in the battle.


Pavle Orlovitch
A Serb warrior at Kosovo.



Voyvoda Stefan
There were many Serbian nobles named "Stefan". I assume this reference is to Stefan Muić.


Strahinya
Strahinja. A Serbian nobleman, hero of another poem not included here. Strahinja's historical identity is uncertain. It has been suggested that he may represent George Balić.


Toplitza Milan
Toplica Milan ["toh-PLEET-sa MEE-lahn" in the English translation; "mee-LAHN" in the original Serbian text]. A fictitious character. In the poems he is a Serb nobleman allied with Lazar. The name should be read as "Milan from Toplica". Toplica is a place name for a town, a region, and a river in what is now southcentral Serbia. Toplica was site of one of the original Serbian bishoprics. The river still bears the name.


Uglyesha
Ugljea ["oog-LYEH-sha"]. Brother of Vukain. A vassal of Stefan Duan, he remained loyal to Duan's son Uro. As Ugljea's lands lay nearest to the area threatened by the growing Ottoman empire, it was Ugljea who worked hardest to collect allies to fight for Serbia in 1371. The mention of Ugljea in the poem "The Fall of the Serbian Empire" is historically inaccurate: The real Ugljea was killed at Marica in 1371.


Voyvoda Vladeta
A variant name for Vlatko Vuković. He commanded the Bosnian army, which fought with Lazar at Kosovo, and was one of the few Serb leaders to survive the battle. (At that time there was little distinction between Serbian and Bosnian nationality.)


King Vukshin
Vukain Mrnjavčević ["voo-KAH-sheen murn-YAHV-che-vich"], brother of Ugljea. A powerful nobleman in Stefan Duan's court, he remained loyal to Duan's son Uro. About halfway into Uro's reign, Vukain came to be the real power behind the throne and was named "king" (kralj). (According to the tradition of the time the title for the monarch (Uro) was "tsar", and the title "kralj" was given to the designated successor.) The mention of Vukain in the poem "The Fall of the Serbian Empire" is inaccurate: The real Vukain was killed at Marica in 1371.


After the deaths of Vukain and Uro, Vukain's son Marko inherited the title of kralj. In spite of the fact that the historical Marko's attempted reign was unsuccessful and undistinguished, he is the hero of several later Serbian epics (not published here), in which he is known as "Marko Kraljević". The same Marko is a hero of Bulgarian poetry as well, in which he is known as "Krali Marko".
 
Old October 5th, 2013 #4
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Default Battle on Kosovo 1389-Movie made by script-English sub.


This is played movie of Kosovo Battle in 1389, but script of the movie is worked to look like documentary! This movie is made in 1989 year, so photography is not perfect!
There is a proofs that Serbs are won battle against Turks 1389, just Serbian Knights army was almost disappear from hard battle and Turks was occupied Serbia in next 100 years after battle, as numbered nation 10 vs 1 in compare with Serbs , this is not showed in this movie, but everything about battle is showed! Everybody who know history, knows that Ugars and some Western Europeans was helping to Serbs after battle on Kosovo, so Turks can not pass on West, Serbia was like gate to West of Europe!!!
Movie have English subtitle,
ENJOY IN THE MOVIE!!!
 
Old October 5th, 2013 #5
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Default Serbian resistance to muslims

Serbian Resistance
This is happens in short, I will show more of script here!!!
Civil war in the Turkish Empire saved Serbia in the early 15th century, but the Turks soon reunited their forces to conquer the last Serbian stronghold at Smederjevo in 1459 and subjugate the whole country. Serbs fled to Hungary, Montenegro, Croatia, Dalmatia and Bosnia, and some formed outlaw bands. In response to the activities of the latter, the Turks disinterred and burned the remains of St. Sava.

By the 16th century, southern Hungary had a sizable Serbian population that remained after the Turks conquered the region in 1526. Montenegro, which emerged as an independent principality after the death of Dusan, waged continual guerrilla war on the Turks, and was never conquered. The Turkish threat, however, did force Prince Ivan of Montenegro to move his capital high into the mountains. There, he founded a monastery and set up a printing press. In 1516 Montenegro became a theocratic state.

Social and economic life in Serbia changed radically under the absolute rule of the Turkish sultan. The Turks split Serbia among several provinces, conscripted Serbian boys into their elite forces, exterminated Serbian nobles, and deprived the Serbs of contact with the West as the Renaissance was beginning. The Turks used the Orthodox Church to intermediate between the state and the peasantry, but they expropriated most church lands. Poorly trained Serbian priests strove to maintain the decaying national identity.

In 1459, the sultan subordinated the Serbian Church to the Greek patriarch, but the Serbs hated Greek dominance of their church, and in 1557, Grand Vizier Mehmed Pasha Sokolovic, a Serb who had been inducted into the Turkish army as a boy, persuaded the sultan to restore autonomy to the Serbian Church. Turkish maltreatment and exploitation grew in Serbia after the 16th century, and more Serbs fled to become "hajduci" (mountain outlaws).
Source: www.kosovo.net/serhist3.html‎
 
Old October 5th, 2013 #6
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Default European gate fall down-Serbia and Belgrade fall down in 1521

Turkish Conquest

The Turks knew that Belgrade was the greatest obstacle in their campaigns towards Central Europe. After the fall of Smederevo in 1440 the Belgrade fortress was under siege by the Turkish army with over 100,000 soldiers. For almost a century Belgrade has resisted Turkish attacks. Finally, under the command of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, on August 28, 1521, the Turks managed to conquer Belgrade - the rampart of Christianity and the key of defense of whole Hungary. The town was demolished and burnt down, and the way to Western Europe open. With the moving of border to the north, the strategic position of Belgrade also changes, and in the next 150 years, it was relatively peaceful town with a more significant commercial and communication function.

However, it was affected by a major Serb rebellion in 1594, which was crushed by the Turks, who burned churches and the relics (mortal remains) of Saint Sava on the Vračar plateau, an event the Temple of Saint Sava was built to commemorate in more recent times. Its highest progress under the Turks Belgrade makes in the XVII century, when it counts population of 100,000 and becomes the second-largest town, right after Istanbul.

After the Turkish defeat under the walls of Vienna in September 1688, the Austrians conquered Belgrade. Two years later, the Turks regained control over it, but these conflicts left Belgrade destroyed and its population killed, persecuted and robbed because of its cooperation with Austrians. Occupied by Austria three times (1688–1690, 1717–1739, 1789–1791), it was quickly recaptured and substantially razed each time by the Ottomans.

After signing the peace treaty of Svishtov in 1791, the Austrians retreated to Zemun, and the janissaries were forbidden entrance to the Belgrade Pashalik (district). After Moustapha-pasha was killed in 1801, the janissaries established their own rule over the town and surrounding villages. That was a period of total anarchy, violence and robberies made by the janissaries. It was finished by the notorious slaughter of the Serbian knezes and other famous Serbs, which was the cause for organizing the insurrection.

Liberation of Belgrade
Awakening of national consciousness and events related to the slaughter of the knezes led to organization of the First Serbian Insurrection in 1804. The insurrection led by Karađorđe from the very beginning was also aimed at liberation of Belgrade. After two years of fight, the town was conquered on January 8, 1806. It became the capital of recently liberated part of Serbia and a symbol of freedom-loving tradition of its population. After renewal it also became an important economic, trade and cultural center. The dynamic development of Belgrade was interrupted by Turkish conquest in 1813, and the repressions which followed led to the insurrection in 1815. The leader of the insurrection, Knez Miloš Obrenović, managed to introduce more of diplomacy into relations with the Turks. Granting certain privileges, he moves Serbian population from the south to Belgrade, causing the Turks to sell their land and houses at prices far below real value. After 346 years of rule, the Turks left Belgrade for good on April 18, 1867, and Knez Mihailo Obrenović moved the capital from Kragujevac to Belgrade. That was a new stimulus to faster economic and cultural development of the town. In the second half of the XIX century it was brought closer to Europe in the aspect of city planning etc. The Kneza Mihaila Street had the central position and it was the shortest connection between the fortress and the town. It soon became the most important trade and business center of Belgrade and it has kept that role until today.
Source: http://www.belgradenet.com/belgrade_...ddle_ages.html
 
Old October 5th, 2013 #7
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Default Belgrade from 1521-1801

The Turks knew that Belgrade was the greatest obstacle in their campaigns towards Central Europe. After the fall of Smederevo in 1440 the Belgrade fortress was under siege by the Turkish army with over 100,000 soldiers, led by Sultan Murad II. Having a strong desire to conquer the town, the Turks have built rnov, a stronghold on the Avala hill. From there they were able to observe and control the surrounding area. For almost a century Belgrade has resisted Turkish attacks. Finally, under the command of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent, on August 28, 1521, the Turks managed to conquer Belgrade - the rampart of Christianity and the key of defence of whole Hungary. The town was demolished and burnt down, and the way to Western Europe open.


With the moving of border to the north, the strategic position of Belgrade also changes, and in the next 150 years, it was relatively peaceful town with a more significant commercial and communication function. The seat of sandak (district) was moved from Smederevo to Belgrade and more intensive development of the town began. Crafts and trade prosper more and more in newly reconstructed town of oriental look. It is the meeting point of merchants from Dubrovnik, Venice, Greece and Austria, as well as craftsmen: the Turks, Armenians, Gypsies and Serbs. Near the market-place numerous caravansaries, bezistans and mosques were built. The town has overgrown its former boundaries and ditches and began to spread more and more along the well-known trade routes connecting the East with Europe. Its highest progress under the Turks Belgrade makes in the XVII century, when it counts population of 100,000 and becomes the second-largest town, right after Istanbul.

At the end of the XVII century the plague struck Belgrade and together with fires and revolts of the janissaries it brought the town to stagnancy. After 167 years of relatively peaceful development, the town became a place of war conflicts. After the Turkish defeat under the walls of Vienna in September 1688, the Austrians conquered Belgrade. Two years later, the Turks regained control over it, but these conflicts left Belgrade destroyed and its population killed, persecuted and robbed because of its cooperation with Austrians. After these events Belgrade once again became a border town, and it was so until 1717, when it was conquered again by the Austrians led by Prince Eugene of Savoy. A new fortress was built then in the place of the already completely demolished Belgrade fortress, according to the modern military and strategic requirements.


The Austrian rule over Belgrade in the period from 1717 until 1739 was marked by a real transformation of the town, for then it lost its Turkish and Oriental outlines and it gained characteristics of a mediaeval town. Beside the fortress, many other buildings were constructed, too. Trade was revived, and the Hungarians, Germans, French, Czech and others move to Belgrade more and more. When in 1739 it was captured again by the Turks, it was exposed to heavy destruction. The Turks demolish Austrian barracks and buildings, as well as houses, while many churches were converted into mosques. Once again, Belgrade became a town of Oriental characteristics and with a border position, because the Belgrade peace treaty defined the Sava river as a border line.

On the other side of the river, Zemun gained border position on the Austrian territory. It gained a special status within the region of the Military Border and these conditions allowed it to develop its economy: trade, crafts, shipping and fishing. Citizens' class grew stronger. Forts, churches and state buildings were built. The houses of Karamata, Ičko and Dimitrije Davidović date from this period. The Serbian elementary school was established in 1745 and this town was the place of work of painters and other cultural workers.

At the end of the XVIII century, there were several unsuccessful tries of the Austrians to conquer Belgrade with the Serbian help. After signing the peace treaty of Svishtov in 1791, the Austrians retreated to Zemun, and the janissaries were forbidden entrance to the Belgrade Pashalik (district). After Moustapha-pasha was killed in 1801, the janissaries established their own rule over the town and surrounding villages. That was a period of total anarchy, violence and robberies made by the janissaries. It was finished by the notorious slaughter of the Serbian knezes and other famous Serbs, which was the cause for organizing the insurrection.
 
Old October 5th, 2013 #8
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Default Serbs keep blood purity-Most important thing

Serbs was or paying "harac"Impost to Turks, second was Hajduks and run in mountain with girls and families, small number go to Aussie and today, so called bosniaks, was received islam and they get for exchange normal life,equal with rest of Turks. Those traitors are "bosniaks" today. This is important fact. Interest, they are Serbs by blood, white, so obvious and dont accept this fact, even hate Serbs. They dont have any connections with albanian shqiptars and they support them just because of filthy islam.
 
Old October 6th, 2013 #9
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Default Milan Stojadinović in visit to Italy and Third Reich

Pictures of Serbian prime minister Milan Stojadinović in visit to Benito Mussolini and to Third Reich!!! Serbian prime minister was great National-Socialist!!!!

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...28/pozdrav.jpg

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/.../musolini2.jpg

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...8/musolini.jpg

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...28/gering1.jpg - Milan Stojadinovic with Herman Goering!

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...Scanned-03.jpg
Milan Stojadinovic with Adolf Hitler-Fuhrer!
http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...Scanned-02.jpg

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...gor28/MS18.jpg

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...Scanned-01.jpg
Serbian National-Socialist!
http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...28/miting4.jpg

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...28/miting2.jpg - Support of Serbs to Dr. Milan Stojadinovic

http://www1.picturepush.com/photo/a/...C-smanjena.jpg - Milan Stojadinovic with his great friend Herman Goering!

http://i1182.photobucket.com/albums/...8/f3044ed0.jpg

 
Old November 11th, 2013 #10
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Published On: Sun, Nov 10th, 2013

Society / Trending | By InSerbia Team


Remains of Serbian heroine Milunka Savic transported to the Alley of deserving citizens in Belgrade

BELGRADE – The remains Milunka Savic, Serbian heroine of the Balkan Wars and World War I, were transported to the Alley of deserving citizens, where they were laid down with the song “Tamo Daleko” (There, far away).



The remains of Milunka Savic, were laid 40 years after her death with the highest state and military honors, with the hymn “Boze Pravde” and salutes at the New Cemetery in Belgrade.

The commemorative ceremony and memorial service, along with family members and numerous citizens, were attended by Serbian President Tomislav Nikolic, Ministers Nebojsa Rodic, Ivan Mrkic, Velimir Ilic, Tomislav Jovanovic, Aleksandar Antic and Milan Bacevic.

The transportation of remains of the heroine was also attended by the Vice President of the Assembly of Serbia Konstantin Arsenovic, Vice President of the Assembly of the City of Belgrade Zoran Alimpic, Serbian Army Chief Ljubisa Dikovic, Archbishop Stanislav Hocevar, representatives of embassies and military attaches from 19 countries and large number of citizens.

Wreaths were laid on Milunka’s grave by the President of Serbia, then Minister Aleksandar Antic in the name of the Government, then Arsenovic, Alimpic and Dikovic in front of Serbian Assembly, Assembly of the City of Belgrade and Serbian Army.



Milunka Savic, Serbian Joan of Arc, participated in two Balkan wars and World War I and was the holder of military golden Karadjordjevic Star with swords, golden medal for valor “Milos Obilic”, the Legion of Honor grade IV, Legion of Honor grade V, French War memorial cross and Memorial (Albanian memorial and memorial of the Salonika Front 1915 – 1965).



Quote:
Milunka Savić

Milunka Savić GCMG (Serbian: Милунка Савић, 1888 – 5 October 1973) was a Serbian war heroine who fought in the Balkan Wars and in the First World War. She is recognised as the most-decorated female combatant in the entire history of warfare.[1] She was wounded no fewer than nine times during her term-of-service.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milunka_Savi%C4%87
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Old February 13th, 2014 #11
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Default Herman Neubacher-Ministar Trećeg Rajha i prijatelj Srba

Херман Нојбахер је министар Трећег Рајха за Балкан и Грчку који се залагао за Велику Србију, посебно за припајање Црне Горе Србији, а Милана Недића је видео као Вођу Велике Србије!
Посебно се противио усташким крволоцима који су били осветничка банда која је убијала Србе, то је желео да заустави и сматрао је да су Срби велики, храбар и поносан народ који никада неће одустати без борбе до последњег човека!!!
Требали би да поштујемо и ценимо позитиван утицај и пријатељску, као и заштитничку улогу према нашем народу!

Херман Нојбахер је учинио за Србију више него њени политичари и више него многи Срби! Херман Нојбахер заслужује да му се подигне споменик, пошто су подизани споменици некима који нису за Србију ништа добро урадили, ред је да се подигне споменик и онима који су желели и радили сјајне ствари за Србију!
Херман Нојбахер се залагао највише за припајање Црне Горе Србији, а видео је Милана Недића као Лидера Велике Србије!
Можда да смо више размишљали и да нисмо дозволили страним агентима и домаћим издајницима да нам кроје судбину, не би били у оваквој ситуацији у којој смо данас!

Медији у Србији данас потпуно пружају криву слику људима и сељацима о стању у држави. Наравно, и за то су нашли лек пуштајући нам турске серије, посебно ме запањује чињеница да се пушта и да то Срби прихватају, серија о човеку који је први заузео Београд, Сулејман, не би га називао величанствени као у серији, али ако о том лику може да се пише све најбоље и да се чак приказује на ТВ-у у најбољем светлу, тај злочинац, Србо убица и касапин србске нације, онда можемо писати и о Херману Нојбахеру као великану који је желео Србију да прошири, не да је сузи!
Но, он није једини, има много људи, посебно из ДСР, који су наводно били окупатори, а уствари су желели пакт са Србијом и пријатељске односе које смо ми издали и бацили низ воду!
Када су нас после исти ти пријатељи бомбардовали 1941. ми њима не праштамо, иако смо их ми издали те је уследила одмазда, али зато великодушно праштамо Турцима и Сулејману, онима који су Србе на колац набијали, оне који су масакрирали Србе где год су стигли и држали нас окупиране 300 година!
Сматрам да је то просто недопустиво и дегутантно да се Трећи Рајх, односно неки људи из Трећег Рајха који су желели пакт и пријатељство са Србима, не смеју ни поменути, а Турци и они који су нас држали окупиране, клали итд... Они се појављују на ТВ екранима и то као јунаци ТВ Серија. Па ето, ја се заиста потресем када видим да се пуштају турске серије, учио сам у школи како су Турци клали Србе и како су поступали према Србкињама и ја не желим да гледам сада исте те Турчине на мом ТВ-у, а немам избора, на сваком каналу су почеле да се пуштају те серије!

Срби, незаборавите шта су нам радили Турци, а онда се запитајте, зашто неко не може да напише нешто добро о Трећем Рајху а да не буде осуђен, док се ови кољачи приказују чак у најбољем светлу на нашим каналима???
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Old May 27th, 2014 #12
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Default Milan Stojadinovic-Serbian Leader from 1937-1939











Milan Stojadinovic was Serbian Leader until 1939 when England maded pressure on Serbian Regant Pavle to put him off from place of Primeminister of Serbia! Milan Stojadinovic was changed directly because great relations with Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Herman Goering and generally Third Reich had great respect and trusted to Milan Stojadinovic!!!
English Royal used great influence on Serbian Empire and maded revolution 1941 in March when Serbia signed Pact with Third Reich and Italy!!! Of course, ZOG maded play role in military puch in Serbia and splited Army on few parts, but Serbs as Bravest Nation ion Europe and World had SDK and SDS wich was on Third reich side and Loyal to the End!!!
Serbs proved that had one of most Bravest Soldaten in WW1, so Englandwould not like enemy such as united Serbs back than, plus together with Third Reich!!!
 
Old June 11th, 2014 #13
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Default Famous SS Officers-Познати СС Официри

https://www.google.rs/url?sa=t&rct=j...68693194,d.bGE

Познати СС Официри који су поређани по чиновима, од Највишег до најнижег!!! Па ето, чисто да се мало подсетимо ко је био ко у Трећем Рајху и СС-у као најјача европска сила, Waffen-SS у којима су били Европљани из доста земаља, па и Русије!

Famous SS personels!!!

Last edited by Tiwaz; June 15th, 2014 at 08:19 PM.
 
Old February 26th, 2015 #14
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Default SS-Brigadefuhrer Leon Degrelle o Adolfu Hitleru

Генерал Леон Дегрел: Хитлерова Енигма

Хитлер... Знали сте га... Какав је био?

То питање ми је било постављено хиљаду пу.та од 1945. и ни на шта ми није теже да одговорим. Скоро две стотине хиљада књига се бавило Другим светским ратом и његовом централном личношћу Адолфом Хитлером. Али, да ли је прави Адолф Хитлер откривен било којом од њих? Хитлерова енигма је изнад свих људских поимања, једном је написао немачки левичарски недељник Die Zeit.

Салвадор Дали, јединствени уметнички геније, тражио је да продре у мистерију једном од својих најдраматичнијих слика. Слика високог планинског предела попуњава платно, остављајући свега неколико метара морске обале обележене тачком са нежном умањеном људском фигуром: последњи сведок умирујуће тишине. Велика телефонска секретарица капље крваве сузе са грана мртвог дрвета; ту и тамо обешени кишобрани и слепи мишеви чији визуелни наговештај је исти.

Онда се поверио: Сматрао сам да је ова слика дубоко пророчанска. Али признајем, још увек нисам израчунао Хитлерову енигму. Он ме је привукао само као објекат моје луде имагинације, зато што сам га видео као човека јединствено способног да окрене ствари наглавачке. Каква лекција из милосрђа за гласне критичаре који су од 1945. похрлили у штампу са својим хиљадама књига, већином презривих, о овом човеку који је толико узнемирио Далијеву интроспективу, да се он после четрдесет година осећао болно и осећао несигурност у присуству своје сопствене халуцине слике. Осим Далија, ко је други икада покушао да направи објективан портрет овог изузетно необичног човека, кога је Дали означио као најексплозивнију фигуру у историји човечанства?



КАО ПАВЛОВЉЕВ САТ

Брдо књига о Хитлеру, базирано на бљеску мржње и игнорисања, мало доприноси описивању и објашњавању најмоћнијег човека кога је свет икада видео. Да ли хиљаде ових портрета Хитлера било како личе на човека кога сам ја знао? Хитлер је седео поред мене, стајао, причао и слушао. Било је немогуће објаснити људима да оно што су слушали или читали на телевизији не стоји у сагласности са истином.

Људи радије прихватају измишљотину, поновљену хиљадама пу.та, него реалност. Иако никада нису причали с њиме, никада чули речи из његових уста. Баш то Хитлерово име одмах призива гримасу ђавола, извор свих негативних емоција. Као Павловљев сат, спомињање Хитлера означава изостављање битног и реалности. На време, међутим, историја ће демандовати све накупљене осуде.



НЕОБИЧНО ПРИВЛАЧАН

Хитлер је увек присутан пред мојим очима као човек мира 1936. и као човек рата 1944. Немогуће је бити лични сведок тако необичног човека, а не бити обележен тиме за цео живот. Не прође ни дан а да се Хитлер не јави у мом сећању, не као човек одавно мртав, него као живи створ који је прошао канцеларијским подом, седео на столици, гурнуо дрво у камин.

Прва ствар коју је свако примећивао када га угледа били су његови мали бркови. Безброј пу.та су му саветовали да их обрије, али је увек одбијао; људи су навикли на њега таквог какав је био.

Није био висок... не више него Наполеон или Александар Велики. Имао је дубоке плаве очи за које су многи мислили да су чаробне, иако ја нисам тако мислио. Нити сам опажао струју сигурности из његових руку за које су рекли да ће одустати. У неколико прилика сам их брзо ухватио и никад нисам био погођен њиховом светлошћу. Његово лице је показивало осећај равнодушности према страсти или болу тренутка. У тренуцима када је био умртвљен не говорећи ни речи, његова вилица се померала као да меље неку препреку у парампарчад. Онда би изненада оживео и упустио се у директан разговор с тобом, иако би уствари држао говор маси од неколико стотина хиљада људи на берлинском пољу Темплхоф. Онда би се преобразио. Чак и његова комплексност, иначе досадна, развезла би се док је причао. И у тим временима, сигурни смо, Хитлер је био необично привлачан као поседник магичне снаге.



ИЗУЗЕТНА СНАГА

Све што би могло изгледати превише узвишено у његовим коментарима, он би брзо ублажио призвуком хумора. Живописни свет, љутите фразе, све су биле под његовом контролом. Брзина којом би осликавао слику света доносила је осмех, или би почео с неким неочекиваним и умирујућим поређењем. Могао је бити оштар и чак неумољив у својим одлукама, и скоро увек у исто време бити изненађујуће помирљив, осећајан и топао.

После 1945. Хитлер је оптужен за свакакве ужасе, али он није био човек такве грозне природе. Волео је децу. Сасвим природна ствар за њега је била да заустави ауто и подели своју храну с младим бициклистима дуж пу.та. Једном је дао свој кишни мантил оронулом човеку који се гегао по киши. У поноћ он би прекидао посао и припремао храну за свог пса Блонди.

Није могао поднети да једе месо, јер је то значило смрт живог створења. Одбијао је да једе зеца или пастрмку, који су били жртвовани да би њему обезбедили храну. Дозвољавао је само јаја на свом столу, јер је јаје значило да је кокошка била поштеђена, пре него убијена. Хитлерове навике у исхрани су за мене биле сталан извор чуђења. Како би неко са тако ригорозним распоредом, ко је имао удела у десетинама исцрпљујућих масовних окупљања из којих се појављивао окупан знојем, често том приликом губећи један или два килограма, ко је спавао само три или четири сата ноћу, и ко је 1940-1945. носио цео свет на својим леђима, ко је владао над преко три стотине осамдесет милиона Европљана, како би, размишљао сам, физички преживео само на куваним јајима, неколико парадајза, две до три палачинке и гомили резанаца? Али он је уствари добијао на тежини.

Пио је само воду. Није пушио и није дозвољавао пушење у његовом присуству. У један или два сата ноћу још увек би говорио, неузнемирен, близу свог камина, живахан, често забаван. Никада није показивао знаке умора. Његова публика би могла бити преморена, али он не!

Описивали су га као старог, уморног човека. Ништа није даље од истине. Септембра 1944. представљали су га као прилично излапелог. Ја сам провео једну недељу са њим. Његова ментална и физичка снага је била још увек прихватљива. Напад на његов живот који се одиграо 20. јула, ако ништа друго растеретио га је. Пио је чај у својим одајама у миру, као да смо били у његовом приватном апартману у канцеларији пре рата или да уживамо гледајући снег и чисто плаво небо кроз велики прозор у Берхтесгадену.



ГВОЗДЕНА САМОКОНТРОЛА

На самом крају живота, сигурно, леђа су му се повила, али ум му је био бистар као зрак светлости. Тестамент који је сталожено диктирао уочи ноћи своје смрти, у три ујутро двадесет деветог априла '45, пружа нам трајно сведочанство. Наполеон на Фонтенблоу није био без тренутака панике пре него што га је напустио. Хитлер се једноставно руковао са својим заменицима у тишини, доручковао као и сваки други дан, и пошао у смрт као да иде у лагану шетњу. Да ли је историја икада била сведок тако енормне трагедије доведене до краја с таквом челичном самоконтролом?

Хитлерова најизраженија карактеристика је била његова једноставност. Најкомплексније проблеме решавао је сам уз неколико основних принципа. Његове акције су биле усклађене с идејама и одлукама које је свако могао да разуме. Радник из Есена, изолован фармер, рурски индустријалац и универзитетски професор могли су са лакоћом пратити начин његовог размишљања. Јасноћа његовог резоновања је све чинила очигледним.

Његов начин живота и понашања се никад нису променили, чак и када је постао владар Немачке. Облачио се и живео скромно. Током својих младалачких дана у Минхену, није трошио више од једне марке дневно за храну. Никада у животу није трошио превише на себе. Током свих тринаест година канцелар никада није носио новчаник или новац са собом.



КОМПЈУТЕРИЗОВАНИ МОЗАК

Хитлер је био самоук и није се трудио да сакрије ту чињеницу. Његово знање се састојало од селективног и истрајног проучавања и знао је много више од хиљада углађених академика.

Мислим да нико никада није читао као он. Обично је читао једну књигу дневно, увек прво читајући крај и преглед да би одмерио најинтересантнији део за себе. Имао је моћ да изведе суштину сваке књиге и затим је запамти у свом компјутеризованом мозгу. Чуо сам га како прича о компликованим научним књигама са савршеном прецизношћу, чак и у огњу рата.

Његова интелектуална радозналост је била безгранична. Читачки је био упознат с делима најразноврснијих аутора и ништа није било превише комплексно за његово резоновање. Дубоко је разумео Буду, Конфучија и Исуса Христа, затим Лутера, Калвина и Савонаролу и писце дивове као што су Данте, Шилер, Шекспир и Гете, као и аналитичке писце као што су Ренан и Говино, Чембрлен и Сорел.

Вежбао се у филозофији читајући Аристотела и Платона. Могао је да цитира целе параграфе Шопенхауера и дуго времена је носио џепно издање Шопенхауера са собом. Ниче га је научио много о моћи воље. Његова глад за знањем је била неугасива. Провео је стотине сати проучавајући дела Тацитуса и Момсена, војне стратегије као што су Клаузевицева, и градитеља империја као што је Бизмарк. Ништа није заобилазио: светску историју ни историју цивилизација, дела као што су Библија и Талмуд, томистичку филозофију и сва огромна дела Хомера, Софокла, Хорација, Овидија, Титуса и Цицерона. Знао је Јулијана Апостату као да је био његов савременик.

Његово знање је проширено механиком. Знао је како машине раде; разумевао је балистику разноликог оружја; задивљивао најбоље медицинске научнике својим знањем медицине и биологије. Универзалност Хитлеровог знања је могла да изненади и да се не допадне онима који је нису били свесни, али и поред тога, историјска чињеница је да је Хитлер био један од најкултивисанијих људи овог века. Много пу.та више од Черчила, интелектуалног медиокритета, од Пјера Лавала који је имао пуко познавање историје, од Рузвелта, или Ајзенхауера који никада није отишао даље од детективских романа.



МЛАДИ АРХИТЕКТА

Већ током својих најранијих дана, Хитлер је био другачији од остале деце. Имао је унутрашњу снагу и био усредсређен духом и инстинктима. Вешто је цртао са само једанаест година. Његови цртежи урађени у тим годинама показују особиту сигурност и живахност. Први цртежи и акварели, цртани када је имао само 15 година, пуни су поезије и осећајности. Један од његових највише задивљујућих раних радова, Тврђава утопија, такође показује да је био уметник изузетне имагинације. Уметнички је био оријентисан у многим правцима. Још као младић писао је и поезију. Диктирао је целе комаде својој сестри Паули која је била запрепашћена његовом стваралачком слободом. Са шеснаест година је покренуо у Бечу стварање опере. Чак је дизајнирао и уређење на бини, као и све костиме; наравно, ликови су били Вагнерови хероји.

Више од обичног уметника, Хитлер је био изнад свега архитекта. Стотине његових радова су биле познате, како у архитектури, тако и у сликарству. Напамет је могао репродуковати, насликати сваки детаљ лучне куполе цркве или испреплетаност лукова израђених од кованог гвожђа. Уствари, хтео је да испуни свој сан да постане архитекта, када је и отишао у Беч, почетком века.

Када неко види стотине слика, скица и цртежа које је створио у то време, које показују његово владање тродимензионалним формама, онда је запањујуће да га је комисија на Академији лепих уметности оборила на два пријемна испита. Немачки историчар Вернер Масер, који није био Хитлеров пријатељ, критиковао је ову комисију: Сви ови радови откривају најнеобичнији архитектонски дар и знање. Градитељ Трећег рајха дао је оснивачима Академије лепих уметности у Бечу разлог да се постиде.

У својој соби Хитлер је увек постављао стару слику своје мајке. Сећање на вољену мајку било је с њим до дана када је умро. Пре него што је умро, 30. априла 1945, ставио је слику своје мајке испред себе. Имала је плаве очи као и он и слично лице. Ментална интуиција јој је говорила да је њен син другачији од друге деце. Понашала се као да је знала судбину свог сина. Пред смрт је осетила бол због неизмерне мистерије која је окруживала њеног сина.



СКРОМНО ПОРЕКЛО

Током младих година, Хитлер је практично водио живот пустињака. Његова највећа жеља је била да се повуче из света. Усамљеник у срцу, лутао је, јео мало, али гутао књиге из три библиотеке. Уздржавао се од конверзација и имао само неколико пријатеља.

Скоро је немогуће да се замисли нека друга таква судбина у којој је човек почео са тако мало, а постигао тако много. Александар Велики је био син краља. Наполеон, из имућне породице, био је генерал у 24-ој. Петнаест година после Беча, Хитлер је још увек био непознати каплар. Хиљаде других је имало хиљаде пу.та више могућности да оставе свој траг на свету.

Хитлер није био обузет својим приватним животом. У Бечу је живео у отрцаном тесном смештају. Али и поред свега тога, изнајмио је клавир који је заузимао пола собе и концентрисао се на писање своје опере. Живео је на хлебу, млеку и супи од поврћа. Његово сиромаштво је било страшно. Никада није имао зимски капут. Чистио је улице у данима када је падао снег. Носио пртљаг на железничкој станици. Проводио је недеље у прихватилиштима за бескућнике. Али, никада није престајао да слика и чита.

И поред свог страшног сиромаштва, Хитлер је на неки начин успевао да одржи уредан изглед. Газде и газдарице у Бечу и Минхену су га се сећали по његовој цивилизованости и пријатној нарави. Понашања увек беспрекорног, његова соба је увек била чиста, оскудна имовина прецизно уређена, а одела обешена или сложена. Сам је прао своју одећу, што је нешто што данас мало људи ради. За опстанак му скоро ништа није требало и новац од продаје неколико слика био је довољан да задовољи све његове потребе.



ПОТРАГА ЗА СУДБИНОМ

Задивљен лепотом цркве у Бенедиктанском манастиру, Хитлер је брзо сањао о томе да постане Бенедиктански монах. Интересантно је и то да кад год је посећивао мису, у то време он је увек морао да прође поред прве Свастике коју је видео; била је угравирана на каменој плочи манастирске капије.

Хитлеров отац, обичан официр, надао се да ће дечак поћи његовим стопама и постати државни службеник. Његов тутор га је охрабривао да постане монах. Уместо тога млади Хитлер је отишао, односно побегао у Беч. Тамо се с својим уметничким аспирацијама противио бирократским медиокритетима академије, издвајао се и медитирао. Изгубљен у престоници Аустро-Угарске, трагао је за својом судбином. Током првих тридесет година Хитлеровог живота, датум 20. април 1889. није никоме ништа значио. Тог дана је рођен у месту Браунау, малом граду у долини Ина. Током свог избеглиштва у Бечу често је размишљао о свом скромном дому и нарочито о мајци. Када је била болесна, он би се враћао кући из Беча и пазио на њу. Недељама ју је лечио, радио све кућне послове и помагао као највољенији син. Када је на крају умрла, Божићне вечери, његов бол је био неизмеран. Скрхан болом сахранио је на малом сеоском гробљу. Никад нисам видео некога тако сломљеног., рекао је доктор његове мајке, који је иначе био Јевреј.



ЈАК ДУХ

Хитлер се тада још увек није усмерио на политику, али без правог знања о њему, то је била његова најпознатија каријера. Политика је на крају заслепила његову страст за уметношћу. Људи, масе, били су глина која би за њега постала прелеп уметнички рад као једна од чудесних Миронових скулптура, Ханс Макартнова слика или Вагнерова кружна трилогија.

Љубав према музици, уметности и архитектури није га удаљила од политичког живота и друштвених питања Беча. Да би преживео, радио је као обичан радник окружен другим радницима. Био је тихи посматрач, али му ништа није промакло: ни сујета и егоизам буржоазије, ни морална и материјална мизерија људи, нити стотине хиљада радника који су узбуркали широке булеваре Беча с бесом у срцима.

Био је запањен порастом броја брадатих Јевреја у Бечу који су носили кафтане, обележје непознато у Линцу. Како они могу бити Немци? питао се. Читао је статистике: 1860. било је 69 јеврејских породица у Бечу, а 40 година касније 200.000. Било их је свуда. Посматрао је њихову инвазију на универзитете и правну и медицинску струку, као и њихово преузимање новина.

Хитлер је у овој навали био изложен страсним реакцијама радника, али радници нису били сами у својим несрећама. Било је много истакнутих личности у Аустрији и Мађарској који нису крили своју озлојеђеност због оног за шта су веровали да је била инвазија на њихове земље. Хитлер је жељно слушао демохришћане, главне у Бечу.

Хитлер је исто тако био забринут због судбине осам милиона аустријских Немаца удаљених од немачке националности. Видео је цара Франца Јозефа као огорченог и ситног старог човека неспособног да савлада дневне проблеме и тежње будућности. Тихо, млади Хитлер је сумирао ствари у својој глави.

Прво, Аустријанци су били део Немачке, заједничке отаџбине.

Друго, Јевреји су били странци у немачком друштву.

Треће, патриотизам је био вредан ако су га делиле све класе. Обични људи с којима је Хитлер делио жалост и понижење су били исто толико део отаџбине као и милионери у високом друштву.

Четврто, класни рат који би уништио сваку земљу, пре или касније би осудили и радници и шефови. Ни једна земља не може да преживи класни рат, само сарадња између радника и шефова може да унапреди земљу. Радници морају бити поштовани и морају да живе с поштовањем и чашћу. Стваралаштво не сме никад да буде угушено.

Када је Хитлер касније саопштио да је своју друштвену и политичку доктрину направио у Бечу, рекао је истину. Десет година касније његово опажање стварано у Бечу постало је дневна заповест.

Према томе, Хитлер је живео у претрпаном граду Бечу практично као изгнаник, још увек тихо осматрајући све око себе. Његова снага је долазила изнутра. Није тражио ни од кога да размишља уместо њега. Изузетна људска бића увек се осећају усамљено у огромној гомили људи. Хитлер је видео своју усамљеност као предивну могућност за медитирање, а не да буде зароњен у море глупости. Да се неби загубио у неплодној пустињи, јак дух тражи уточиште у себи. Хитлер је био таква душа.



РЕЧ

Светлост у Хитлеровом животу је долазила од речи. Сав његов уметнички таленат је био усмерен у мистерији комуникације и речитости. Хитлер никад не би замишљао освајање популарности без моћи речи. Он би очаравао и био очаран речима. Нашао би тотално испуњење када би магија његових речи инспирисала срца и мисли маса с којима је комуницирао. Осећао би се препорођеним сваки пут када би с мистичном лепотом саопштио знање које је стекао у свом животу. Хитлерово чаробно говорништво ће постати за још дуго времена огромно поље проучавања психоаналитичара. Моћ Хитлерове речи је кључ. Без тога, никад не би било Хитлерове ере.



ТРАНСЦЕНДЕНТАЛНА ВЕРА

Да ли је Хитлер веровао у Бога? Веровао је, и то дубоко! Звао је Бога свемоћни, господар свега познатог и непознатог. Пропагандисти су представили Хитлера као атеисту, што он није био. Био је представљан као лицемерни и материјалистички свештеник, али он сам није био у томе. Веровао је у неопходност стандарда митолошких догми, без којих би, понављао је, велика институција хришћанске цркве била срушена. Ове догме се сукобљавају с његовом интелигенцијом, али је исто тако препознао да је било тешко за људски ум да обухвати све проблеме стваралаштва, њен безгранични обим и величанствену лепоту. Потврдио је да сваки људски створ има духовне потребе.

Песма славуја, мирис и боја цвета, непрестано су га враћали у велики проблем стваралаштва. Нико на свету није причао са мном тако речито о постојању Бога. Он није носио своје ставове зато што је одрастао као хришћанин, већ зато што га је његов аналитички ум довео до концепта Бога. Хитлерова вера је трансцендирала формуле и могућности. Бог је за њега био основ свега, заповедник ствари, Судбине и свега осталог.
 
Old February 26th, 2015 #15
Tiwaz
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Tiwaz
Default Речи Адолфа Хитлера

Свако доба на земљи је представљено неким именом, неком изванредном личношћу која се појави једном у хиљаду година да да човечанству ново значење, нова правила, да води и обавештава о његовој судбини...

Велика личност и архетип нашег доба је Адолф Хитлер. У времену највеће опасности за нашу расу, ово бесмртно биће је послато да нас подсети на вечне законе живота.

Речи које је овај човек изговорио, су речи живота за нашу расу... без њих нема наде. Без њих наша врста нема будућности на планети. Без њих је наша раса осуђена на пропаст.

Али захваљујући његовом пророчком појављивању у историји човечанства, Адолф Хитлер нам је оставио предивно наслеђе. И из његовог писања и јавних иступа, он је објавио те уредбе и правила по којима треба да живимо и делујемо.

Фундаментални камен темељац Хитлерове доктрине је његова књига, Mein Kampf Моја Борба, где је он поставио основна начела нове вере. И иако је овај рад често помињан, оспораван, и доста хуљен, ретко да је читан и схваћен онако како захтева право расуђивање.

Да би учења Адолфа Хитлера учинили доступним свим следбеницима Покрета, као и другим заинтересованим, ми нудимо ову селекцију текстова као најрелевантније цитате које садрже ово монументално дело. Највише на уму, код селектирања ових цитата, је била потреба да се омогући концизно складиште материјала које може читањем да се запамти и буде корисна референца и водич у свакодневном животу. Због погодности све селекције су груписане у 11 главних категорија. Референтни бројеви дају тачан поједини обим и посебно поглавље у Мојој Борби, где сваки цитат може бити нађен.

Ми верујемо да се ове инспиришуће речи неће показати само као поучне, него ће се показати и као извор просвећења и охрабрења, и водити у ново освешћење и уважавање Његових жеља и његове воље за сво аријевско човечанство....

Matt Koehl






I: ПРИРОДА

Последња спознаја је увек схватање инстинктивних узрока то значи: човек никада не сме запасти у заблуду, да поверује да је заиста унапређен за господара и мајстора природе као што то бедна охолост полуобразовања тако лако подупире већ он мора да разуме и схвати фундаменталну нужност да природа влада ма колико да је његов живот подвргнут овим законима вечне борбе и рвања да се уздигне навише. Он ће тада осетити да у једном свету, у коме планете круже око сунца, месеци се врте око планета, у коме је увек само снага господарица слабости и њу присиљава да буде послушни слуга, или је ломи, да у таквом свету за човека не могу да важе посебни закони. И за њега такође владају вечна начела ове последње мудрости. Он може покушати да их схвати, али да се од њих отргне, никада неће успети. I:10


Тиме што човек покушава да се одупре гвозденој логици природе, он упада у борбу са основним законима, којима и сам он има да захвали своје битисање као човек. Тако његово делање против природе мора да доведе до његове сопствене пропасти. I:11


Једно извесно време може се, наравно, подсмевати природи, само, њена освета неће изостати. Она ће се јавити касније, или боље речено: њу ће људи исувише касно приметити. I:10


Вечна природа се немилосрдно свети за непридржавање њених налога. I:2


...Ова планета је плутала већ милионима година кроз етар без људи и она може једном поново исто тако да се креће, ако људи забораве да они свој виши живот не захваљују идејама неких суманутих идеологија, него спознаји и безобзирној примени чврстих природних закона. I:11


...Испуњење обавезе, то значи, не задовољавати себе самог, већ служити целини. I:8




II: РАСА

Целокупно светско историјско збивање је само испољавање нагона за самоодржањем расе, у добром или лошем смислу. I:11


Увек је унутрашња надареност народа одлучујућа за начин дејства спољних утицаја. Што код једних води ка изгладњавању, подстиче друге у предани рад. I:11


Оно што на овом свету није добра раса је плева. I:11


...Народни поглед на свет препознаје значај и важност човечанства у његовим расним праелементима. Он у држави принципијелно види само средство сврхе, а као њену сврху подразумева добијање расног живота људи. Он тиме никако не верује у једнакост раса, већ са њиховом различитошћу препознаје и њихову већу или мању вредност и овим сазнањем се осећа обавезним, да према вечном хтењу, које овладава овим универзумом, поспеши победу бољег, јачег, да захтева подређивање горег и слабијег. Он се тако принципијелно удвара аристократској основној идеји природе и верује у важење овог закона за све, и до последњег појединачног бића. Не види само различиту вредност раса, већ и различиту вредност појединачних људи. Из масе се за њега показује значај личности, а тиме према дезорганизујућем марксизму делује организационо. Верује у неопходност идеализовања људства, пошто опет у њој једино види претпоставку за постојање човечанства. Једино из неке етичке идеје не може да призна право на егзистенцију, уколико ова идеја представља опасност за расни живот носилаца више етике, јер у свету, који постаје пун копилади и црнаца, и сви појмови људског лепог и узвишеног као и све представе идеализоване будућности нашег човечанства би се заувек изгубиле. II:2


Сва велика питања времена су питања тренутка и представљају само последичне појаве одређених узрока. Узрочно значење међу њима има, међутим, само једно, питање расног одржања народности. I:12


Све на земљи се може поправити. Сваки пораз може постати оцем касније победе. Сваки изгубљени рат узроком каснијег успона, свака невоља оплођењем људске енергије, а из сваке потлачености могу доћи снаге за нови душевни препород - докле год се крв одржава чистом! I:11


Расно чист и неизмешано преостали Герман, на америчком континенту, уздигао се до господара истога - он ће остати господар толико дуго док год и он не падне жртвом крвног скрнављења. I:11


Грех против крви и расе је наследни грех овога света и крај оног човечанства које се њему пода. I:10


Не! Постоји само једно најсветије људско право, а то право је истовремено најсветија обавеза, наиме: бринути се да се крв одржи чистом, да би се очувањем најбољег људства дала могућност племенитијег развитка ових бића. II:2


"Народна држава ће тиме у првој линији морати да брак извуче са нивоа трајне расне срамоте, да би му дала светост оне институције, која је позвана да ствара слике и прилике господње, а не наказе између човека и мајмуна. II:2


"Јер воља Божија даде људима обличије, њихово биће и способности. Онај који уништава Његово дело, објављује рат творевини Господњој и Његовој божанској вољи." II:10


Ко се усуди да стави руку на највишу слику господа, огрешује се о благог ствараоца овог чуда и помаже протеривању из раја. II:1




III: ЗАЈЕДНИЦА


Нагон за одржањем врсте је прави и први разлог за образовање људских заједница! I:4


Питање уливање националног поноса у људе је, између осталог, примарно питање креирања здравог социјалног окружења, као базе могућности едуковања појединца. За само оне који су кроз школу и васпитање научили о културној, економској али изнад свега политичкој величини њихових отаџбина, може и хоће обезбедити унутрашњи понос због привилегије припадања таквом народу. I:2


Социјална делатност никад и нипошто не сме да се огледа у тако исто смешним као и несврсисходним тамбурањима о благостању, већ много више у уклањању таквих основних недостатака у организицији привредног и културног живота, које морају да воде до изопачења појединаца или најмање могу до тога да доведу. I:2


Социјални подухват . . . никако не може тражити захвалност, с обзиром да његова функција није да нешто фаворизује, него да утемељи право. I:2


...Могућност одржања једног здравог сељачког сталежа као фундамента целокупне нације никада се довољно високо не може проценити. Многе од наших данашњих патњи су само последица незрелог односа између сеоског и градског становништва. Чврсти сталеж мањих и средњих сељака био је већ у свим временима најбоља заштита против социјалног обољевања какво данас управо имамо. I:4


...Народна држава ће морати да заузме принципијелно другачији став у односу на појам рада. Она ће, ако је потребно, чак вековним васпитањем морати да прекине са бесмислом презирања телесног рада. Она ће принципијелно морати да човека појединца вреднује не према природи његовог посла већ према форми и ваљаности учинка. II:2


Вредновање човека се мора заснивати на начину, на који он задовољава свој задатак који му је дао народ. Јер делатност коју појединац обавља, није сврха његовог постојања, већ само средство за то. Он треба да се као човек даље образује и оплемењује, али то може само у оквиру своје културне заједнице, која увек мора да почива на фундаменту државе. Одржању овог фундамента он треба да да свој допринос. Форму овог доприноса одређује природа, на њему је само да марљивошћу и поштењем надокнади народној заједници оно што му је она сама дала. Ко то ради, заслужује највише процене и највише поштовање. II:2


...Поштен посао, без обзира које врсте он био, није никада срамота. I:2


Уверење сваког националсоцијалисте се доказује најпре у његовој спремности, у његовој марљивости и жељи за остварење посла који му је пренела народна заједница. II:11




IV: ИДЕАЛИЗАМ


Најчистији идеализам се несвесно поклапа са најдубљом спознајом. I:11


Колико је, међутим, само потребно, увек изнова увиђати, а идеализам не представља сувишно испољавање осећања, већ да је у ствари био, јесте и биће претпоставка за оно што означавамо као људску културу, тако да је тек он створио појам човек. Овом унутрашњем уверењу Аријевац захваљује за своје место у овом свету, а свет му захваљује за човека, јер је само он из чистог духа, обликовао ону стваралачку снагу, која из јединствене везе сирове песнице и генијалног интелекта ствара споменике људске културе. I:11


Аријевац није највећи по својим духовним особинама самим по себи, већ по мери спремности да све способности стави у службу заједнице. Нагон за самоодржањем је код њега достигао тиме најплеменитију форму, тако што је сопствено Ја вољно подредио животу целине и, ако тренутак то захтева, приноси га на жртву. I:11


Без његовог идеалног уверења би све, и најблиставије способности духа биле само дух по себи, спољни сјај без унутрашње вредности, а никад стваралачка снага. Али пошто стварни идеализам није ништа друго до подређивање интереса и живота појединца целини, а то опет представља неопходну претпоставку за стварање организационих облика сваке врсте, он у најдубљој основи одговара последњој тежњи природе. Он сам доводи људе до признавања првенства моћи и снази, и пушта их да постану мрвица оног поретка, који обликује и ствара цео универзум. I:11


У преданости сопственог живота опстанку заједнице је круна свег пожртвовања. Једино тиме се спречава да оно што људске руке саграде, људске руке поново поруше или Природа уништи. I:11


...Као када егоизам постане владалац неког народа, тада се кидају ланци реда, и у лову на сопствену срећу, људи се са неба стрмоглављују право у пакао. I:1


Смемо дакле да устврдимо, да човек не живи само да би служио вишим идеалима, већ да ти виши идеали обрнуто дају, такође, претпоставку за његово битисање као човека. II:1
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Default Re: Речи Адолфа Хитлера
V: КУЛТУРА


Расно питање даје не само кључ за светску историју већ и за људску културу уопште! I:12


Све чему се ми данас на овој земљиној кугли дивимо, наука, уметност, техника и проналазаштво - само је стваралачки производ малог броја народа можда у првоботно праисконском времену једне расе. Од њих зависи и постојање целе ове културе. Ако они пропадну, онда тоне са њима и лепота ове земље у гроб. I:11


Ако би се човечанство поделило у три врсте: у засниваче културе, у носиоце културе и разараче културе, онда би свакако као представник прве врсте дошао у питање само Аријевац. I:11


Све велике културе прошлих времена пропадале су само због тога, јер је раније стваралачка раса одумирала од прљања своје крви. I:11


Ако би се данас нпр. земљина површина узнемирила неким тектонским поремећајем и из валова океана се уздигли нови Хималаји, једном једином страшном катастрофом би била уништена читава култура човечанства. Не би више постојала ниједна држава, ослободили би се окови сваког реда, били би уништени документи хиљадугодишњег развитка, једно једино велико поље лешева, преплављено водом и муљем. Једино ако би се из тог хаоса ужаса одржала и само неколицина људи одређене расе, способне за културу, тако би и након хиљадугодишњег трајања, земља након свог смиривања поново добила доказе људске, стваралачке снаге. Само би уништење последње расе, способне за културу, и њених појединачних носилаца коначно опустошило земљу. II:2




VI: ЛИЧНОСТ


Расна филозофија се у целини разликује од марксистичке, она не само да препознаје важност расе, него заједно са тим и значај личности, која самим тим чини један од стубова целокупне структуре тог погледа на свет. То су носећи фактори његовог схватања света. II:4


Према томе, у принципу, он се тако принципијелно удвара аристократској основној идеји природе и верује у важење овог закона за све, и до последњег појединачног бића. Не види само различиту вредност раса, већ и различиту вредност појединачних људи. Из масе се за њега показује значај личности, а тиме према дезорганизујућем марксизму делује организационо. II:1


Покрет треба да поспешује поштовање личности свим средствима, никад не треба да заборави да је у личној вредности свега људског, да је свака идеја и свако остварење резултат стваралачке моћи човека, а да дивљење пред величином не представља само чин захвалности према њој, већ такође да обавија уједињујућу траку око онога који се захваљује. I:12


Није маса та која проналази и организује, нити осмишљава, него у свему и увек једино поједини човек, личност, појединац! II:4


...Већина никада не може да замени човека. I:3


Одрицање уздизања великог духа значи губитак бескрајне моћи која струји из имена свих великих људи и жена. I:12


Кад се људска срца сламају и људске душе очајавају, из сумрака прошлости их гледају велики победници невоље и бриге, понижења и беде, духовне неслободе и телесне принуде, и очајном смртнику пружају своје вечне руке! Јао народу који се стиди да их прихвати! I:2



VII: ЕДУКАЦИЈА


Народна држава не треба, спознајући то, да свој целокупни васпитни рад у првом реду усмери само на убризгавање чистог знања, већ и на одгајање тела здравих као дрен. У другој линији тек долази образовање духовних способности. А овде опет, на врху, развој карактера, посебно унапређивање снаге воље и одлучности, повезано са васпитањем за радост одговорности, а тек на крају долази и научно школовање. II:2


научно мало образован, али телесно здрав човек, доброг, чврстог карактера, испуњен радошћу одлучности и снагом воље, вреднији је за народну заједницу, него умни слабић. II:2


И дух ће, ако је здрав, по правилу и трајно живети само у здравом телу. II:2


Верност, пожртвовање, ћутљивост су врлине које су великом народу неопходно потребне, и чије је одгајање и образовање у школи важније од понечег што сада испуњава наше наставне планове. II:2


...Народна држава у свом васпитном раду, највећу вредност треба да, осим телесном, прида управо карактерном образовању. II:2


...Задатак је народне државе да се брине о томе, да се коначно напише светска историја у којој ће се расно питање уздићи на једну доминирајућу позицију. II:2


Целокупан образовни и васпитни рад народне државе мора бити крунисан тиме да она инстинктивно и разумски у срце и мозак поверене јој омладине, унесе смисао и осећај за расу. Ниједан дечак и ниједна девојчица не треба да напусте школу, а да не добију и последње знање о неопходности чистоте крви. II:2




VIII: НЕПРИЈАТЕЉ


Најјачу супротност Аријевцу представља Јеврејин! I:11


Он (јеврејин) јесте и остаје вечити паразит, наметник који се као штетни бацил све више шири, док и само једно погодно плодно тло на то позива. Дејство његовог битка је исто као оно наметника: где се он појави, народ - домаћин одумире након краћег или дужег времена. I:11


Живот Јеврејина нагони на лаж, и то на непрестану лаж, као што северњака тера да се топлије облачи. I:11


Да ли је уопште могло бити некаквог гадалука, било какве бестидности у ма којој форми, пре свега у области културног живота, а да у томе бар један Јеврејин није узео учешћа?! Чим би се и са највећом опрезношћу начинио рез у такав један оток, наишло би се као на гној у гангренозном телу, на малог Јеврејчића, често сасвим засењеног од изненадне светлости. I:2


...Нико не треба да се чуди када се у нашем народу персонификација ђавола као симбола свега злог, прихвати утеловљени лик Јеврејина. I:11


Јеврејско учење марксизма одбија аристократски принцип природе и на место вечно предодређеног права снаге и силе поставља масу броја и њену мртву тежину. Оно тако пориче у човеку вредност личности, оспорава значај нације и беле расе и одузима на тај начин човечанству претпоставке за његово постојање и његову културу. Оно би као основа универзума водило пропасти и крају сваког мишљу за човека схватљивог поретка. И тако као што би у том највећем спознајном организму само хаос као резултат примене таквог једног закона могао бити, тако и на земаљској кугли, за становнике ове планете, само њихова сопствена пропаст. Уколико Јеврејин уз помоћ своје марксистичке религије победи народе овога света, онда ће његова круна бити игра мртваца овог човечанства, онда ће ова планета поново као некада, пре много милиона година, празна од људи летети кроз етар. I:2


Тако да ја данас верујем да поступам у смислу свемогућег Творца: Тиме што се браним од Јеврејина, борим се за дело Свевишњег." I:2


Са Јеврејином нема никаквог пактирања, него само одлучно или-или! I:7


Један народ чисте расе, који је свестан своје крви, Јеврејин никад неће моћи да подјарми. Он ће на овом свету бити вечито само господар мешанаца. I:11



IX: БОРБА


Ко хоће да живи тај се дакле бори, а ко неће да се бори на овом свету вечног ринга, не заслужује живот. I:11


Овај свет није за кукавице I:3


...Слабијима се мора рећи, да се овде управо ради о бити или не бити. I:2


...Крајњи успех је вечито само у нападу. II:2


"Ко нам се супротстави силом, од тога ћемо се одбранити силом" I:12


Терор се не слама духом већ исто тако терором!II:7


Препреке не постоје да би се предали, већ да буду разбијене. I:2


Онај који први од Судбине тражи гаранцију успеха аутоматски се одриче свих идеја херојског дела. II:2


Оно што данас многи због тога сматрају отежавајућим, у ствари је претпоставка за нашу победу. Управо у величини и тешкоћама нашег задатка лежи вероватноћа, да ће се за његову борбу наћи само најбољи борци. А у том избору је јемство успеха. II:2


Светску историју стварају миноритети онда, када се у том миноритету броја отелотворује мајоритет воље и одлучности. II:2


На крају побеђује увек само нагон за самоодржањем. Под њим се топи такозвана хуманост, као израз једне мешавине глупости, кукавичлука и уображеног свезнадарства, као снег на мартовском сунцу. У вечној борби човечанство је постало велико, а у вечном миру оно пропада. I:4


"Свемогући боже, благослови једном наше оружје, буди тако праведан, као што си увек био, пресуди сада, да ли заслужујемо слободу, Свевишњи, благослови нашу борбу!" II:13




X: ПОКРЕТ


У љењи и плашљиви грађански свет, као и у победоносни поход марксистичког освајачког таласа требало је да ступи нова моћ, да би се зла коб судбине зауставила у последњи час. II:1


У време када једна страна, наоружана свим могућим врстама оружја премда хиљаду пута безочнија напада свом жестином на постојећи поредак, друга страна, сада и заувек, ће се моћи одупрети једино уколико пред собом постави неку врсту нове вере... и тада слабашна и кукавичка одбрана бива замењена борбеним покличем храбрим и одлучним нападом. II:1


Недостатак велике новообликујуће идеје у свим временима значи ограничење борбене снаге. Убеђеност у право на примену чак и најбруталнијег онда је увек повезано са постојањем фанатичне вере у неопходност победе превратничког новог уређења на земљи. II:9


...У кукастом крсту ми видимо мисију праведне борбе за победу аријевског човека, а истовремено са њом и победу идеје стваралачког рада... II:7


...Важно је за свакога да зна, да нови Покрет, може да понуди част и славу само будућем потомству, никако у садашњости. I:3


...Покрет који жели да обнови свет, не треба да служи тренутку већ будућности. II:6



При том се може установити да су највећи и најпостојанији успеси у историји најчешће и обично они, који су на свом почетку најмање наилазили на разумевање, јер су стајали у најоштријој супротности са општим јавним мњењем, са његовим схватањем и са његовом вољом. II:6


Само, наше мишљење и деловање ни у ком случају не треба да буде одређено одобравањем или одбијањем нашег доба, већ дужном обавезаношћу на истину коју смо спознали. II:2


Ми националсоцијалисти, не смемо као поборници новог погледа на свет никад да се поставимо на то ''славно'' тло, уз то још погрешних чињеница. У том случају више не бисмо били поборници нове велике идеје, већ сличнији данашњој љази. II:2


Ми националсоцијалисти не смемо никада и нигде да се придружимо уобичајеном ура-патриотизму нашег данашњег грађанског света. II:14


Будућност Покрета је условљена фанатизмом, чак и нестрпљивошћу, са којом га његове присталице заступају као једино исправан и истичу га насупрот творевинама сличне врсте. I:12


...Требало би бити само један Покрет, са једним циљем. II:8


И у овом лежи мисија националсоцијалистичког покрета. Он мора да поучавање нашег народа ван ситница у целини, да се не расипа у споредностима, већ никад не сме да заборави, да је циљ за који ми данас морамо да се боримо, гола егзистенција нашег народа, а једини непријатељ кога морамо да погодимо, јесте и остаје сила, која нам ту егзистенцију отима. II:13



Сви прогони покрета и његових вођа, сва малтретирања и клевете нису му могли наудити. Исправност његових идеја, чистоћа његових жеља, пожртвованост његових присталица учинили су до сада да из свих репресалија изађе јачи него икада пре. Ако се он у свету данашње парламентарне корупције буде озбиљно позабавио најдубљом суштином своје борбе и ако се буде осетио најчистијим отелотворењем вредности расе и личности у складу с тим се буде понашао, онда ће на основу једне скоро математичке законитости однети победу у својој борби. II: ЗАКЉУЧАК




XI: ДРЖАВА


Држава је средство сврхе. Њена сврха је у одржању и унапређивању заједнице физички и душевно истоврсних живих бића. Ово одржање само обухвата понајпре расно постојање, па тиме допушта слободан развој свих снага које дремају у тој раси. II:2


Тако је највиша сврха народне државе брига око одржања оних расних праелемената, који дарујући културу, стварају лепоту и достојанство вишег људства. Ми као Аријевци можемо да под државом замислимо, дакле, само живи организам једне народности, који не само осигурава одржање ове народности, већ је даљим развојем њених духовних и идејних способности води највишој слободи. II:2


...Народна држава... она треба расу да стави у средиште општег живота. II:2


...Највиша сврха људског постојања није у очувању државе, нити владе, већ у очување расе. II:2


Ако помоћним средствима владавинског насиља буде један народ предодређен за пропаст, онда је побуна сваког појединог припадника таквог једног народа не само право већ и обавеза. I:3


Јер, владе и системи се не одржавају трајно путем притиска силе, него вером у њихову доброту и истинитост у заступању и форсирању интереса једног народа. I:10


Најбољи државни устав и државни облик је онај, који с најприроднијом сигурношћу доводи најбоље главе народне заједнице до водећег значаја и одлучујућег утицаја. II:4



Почев од најмање друштвене групације до највишље лидерске позиције читаве нације, држава мора имати принцип личности уврштено у својој организацији. II:4


Ово начело безусловног повезивања апсолутне одговорности са апсолутним ауторитетом, изградиће постепено један одабир вођа какав данас, у ово доба неодговорног и безвезног парламентаризма, је уопште незамислив. II:4


Тиме што парламентарни принцип већинске одлуке побија ауторитет личности и на њено место поставља бројчаност ове или оне гомиле, огрешује се он против аристократске темељне заснованости природе. I:3


Пре ће камила проћи кроз иглене уши но што ће један великан бити "откривен" помоћу избора. I:3


И као што је мало могуће да стотину шупљоглаваца дадну једног мудраца, тако исто је немогуће да од стотину плашљиваца настане једне херојска одлука. I:3


Демократија данашњег запада је само претходница (јеврејског и јеврејиновог) марксизма, који би без ње уопште био незамислив! Тек она пружа овој светској куги хранљиво тло, на коме се онда може широм да распростре зараза. I:3




XII: НОВИ ПОРЕДАК


Овај свет, међутим, сигурно иде у сусрет великом преврату. И само је питање, да ли ће постати спас аријевског човечанства или корист вечитог Јеврејина. Народна држава ће морати да се побрине, да се одговарајућим васпитањем омладине, за последње и највеће одлуке на земљи добије зрео нараштај, а народ који први пође тим путем, ће победити. II:2


Може бити да је злато данас постало искључиви владар живота, ипак ће се човек једном поклонити пред вишим боговима. II:2


Наравно, кукавна војска наших данашњих малограђана то никад неће разумети. Они ће се томе смејати или слегати својим кривим раменима и простењати свој вечити изговор: ''То би по себи било чак јако лепо, али се то ипак не може учинити!" Са вама се то наравно више не да учинити, ваш свет није погодан за то! Ви познајете само једну бригу: ваш лични живот, и јединог бога ваш новац! Само, ми се не обраћамо вама, ми се обраћамо великој армији оних који су превише сиромашни да би њихов лични живот могао свету да значи највећу срећу, онима, који владара свог живота не виде у новцу, већ верују у друге богове. II:2


Ни ми нисмо тако глупи да верујемо, да би могло да успе да се створи безгрешно доба. Само ово не ослобађа од обавезе да се бори против спознатих грешака, да се превазилазе слабости и да се тежи идеалу. II:2


И опет управо националсоцијалистички покрет треба да испуни свој највећи задатак: Он мора да народу отвори очи о туђим нацијама и мора стално и стално да подсећа на правог непријатеља нашег данашњег света интернационалног јеврејина! Уместо мржње против Аријеваца, од којих нас скоро све може да одвоји, а са којима нас ипак веже заједничка крв или велика чинија једноврсне културе, мора да због непријатеља човечанства, као стварног зачетка свег јада, преда општем бесу. Међутим, мора да се брине за то, да се бар у нашој земљи препозна најсмртнији противник и борба против њега као сјајан знак светлијег времена да може да и другим народима покаже пут за спас аријевског човечанства које се бори. II:13



Не сме се допустити да се већа расна (аријевска) заједница расцепа услед различитости појединих народа. Битка која данас бесни, иде за сасвим великим циљевима: једна култура се бори за свој живот, који у себи спаја хиљаде година и обухвата заједно Грке и Германе. II:2


Народном погледу на свет у народној држави мора најзад да успе, да донесе оно племенитије доба, у ком људи своју бригу више не виде у гајењу паса, коња и мачака, већ у уздизању самог човека, доба, у ком се један увиђајући ћутећи одриче, а други се радосно жртвује и даје. II:2


Тако народни поглед на свет одговара најинтимнијем хтењу природе, пошто она поновно успоставља ону слободну игру снага, која мора да води трајном међусобном гајењу, док се најбољем људству, зарађеним поседовањем ове земље, не ослободи пут за активности у областима које ће делом бити изнад, а делом изван њега. II:1


Сви ми слутимо, да ће у далекој будућности пред човека моћи да се поставе проблеми, за чије савладавање ће бити позвана само највиша раса као народ-владалац, ослоњен на средства и могућности целе земљине кугле. II:1


Држава која се у ери расних тровања буде посветила неговању својих најбољих расних елемената мора једног дана да загосподари светом. Нека присталице нашег покрета то не забораве, ако величина жртве икада пружи повода за застрашујуће поређење са могућим успехом. II: ЗАКЉУЧАК
 
Old February 26th, 2015 #16
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Default SS-Obergruppenfuhrer Reinhard Heydrich

Reinhard Heydrich

Primer budućim generacijama

od H. H. Norden-a

Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich je rođen 7. marta 1904. godine u Halle an der Saale. On je bio sin Richard-a Bruno-a Heydrich-a, kompozitora i Elisabetha-e Anna-e Amalia-e Krantz. U vreme njegovog rođenja, njegov otac je bio direktor muzičke kole. Reinchard je pohađao "Reform Realgymnasium" na Hedwigstrase u Halle an der Salle. Već kao đak bio je veoma obrazovan. Čitao je npr. knjigu "Historie de la Civilisation" od francuskog autora Charles-a Seignobos-a i diskutovao o sadraju sa svojim prijateljem Erich-om Schutze-om.
Poto je zavrio osnovnu kolu Reinhard Heydrich se pridruio mornarima kao morski pitomac u Kiel-Holtenau. Uticaji poznatog "Seeteutel" Gret Luckner, koji je stajao učastalo kao posetilac Heydrichove porodice. Zasigurno je igrao ulogu sa podrkom Heydrichovog izbora za karijeru u mornarici. Počeo je svoje sluenje sa ekipom 22. Posle priprema koje su trajale četiri i po godine, on je bio unapređen u Leutnant zur See 1. oktobra 1926. i onda je obrazovan za veznog oficira. U 1928. je postao Oberleutnant zur See. Shodno tome, kasnije vice admiral Kleikamp Heydrich je bio čovek koji je bio talentovan, obrazovan i spreman, toliko je bio i obrazovan o kvarovima brodova. Izgledalo je da nita ne moe da se ispreči pred uspenom karijerom u mornarici. Ipak, sudbina je odlučila drugačije, 6. decembra 1930. Oberleutnant Heydrich je upozna osamnaestogodinju Linu Von Osten. Ona je dola sa ostrva Fehmarn u Ostsee, gde je njen otac bio direktor kole. Bokserskog dana 1930 su se verili. Hydrich je poslao svoju pozivnicu bivoj devojci koja je bila ćerka veoma uticajnog industrijalca. Kasnije je demantovano od strane Heydricha da bi on oenio njegovu ćerku koja je elela da bude lično Heydrihova verenica. Kada je on ovo odbio, njen otac je zaloio protest kod admirala Raeder-a, to je rezultovano time da je Heydrich pozvan pred mornarski sud časti. Davanjem efekta preporuci ovog suda časti, admiral Rader je odlučio da Oberleutant zur See Reinhard Heydrich bude izbačen iz mornarice. Impozantno je da niko nikada nije pronaao nijedan pisani dokaz koji se odnosio na opisanu proceduru suda časti. Heydrich je bio ubeđen da je izbačen iz mornarice zbog političkih razloga.
Kasnije, kroz SS-Obergruppenfuhrer Karl Von Eberstein, Heidrich je uspostavio kontakt se Heinrich-om Himmler-om, koji je postao Reichsfuhrer SS-a. U januaru 1929. Himmler je upravo traio hrabre ljude za izgradnju obavetajne slube SS-a. Dao je Heydrich-u 20 minuta da stavi na papir kako bi on obavio taj posao. Heydrich je napisao svoje ideje, napravio pogodnu strukturu organizacije i dostavio rezultat Reichsfuhrer-u koji je bio veoma impresioniran, čak toliko da je odmah odlučio da to prepusti bivem mornarskom oficiru. Heydrich koji je već postao član NSDAP-a, 1. juna 1931, postao je član SS-a u Hamburg-u 14. jula 1931. On je tada bio SS Sturmmann sa SS brojem 10120. 26. decembra 1931. brak izmđu Reincharda Heydricha i Linae Von Osten se obistinio u seoskoj crkvi Grossenbrode-a.
Onda je Heydrich počeo sa izgradnjom obavetajne slube. U ranim danima, ovo je bilo poznato kao "Abteilung lc". Krajem 1931. dve sobe su iznajmljene za "SS - lc" na četvrtom spratu u ulici Turkenstrase25 u Minhenu. Ovo je bila rezidencija partijskog člana Victoria-e Edrich, koja je krila "Blutfahne" u svojoj garderobi tokom perioda kada su SA i SS bili pod zabranom. Tokom tog perioda Heydrich je bio SS Hauptsturmfuhrer. 21. decembra 1931. je postao SS Sturmbannfuhrer, a 22. jula 1932. SS Standartenfuhrer i "Chef des Sicherheitsdienstes" (SD). Septembra 1932. SD je imao sedite u maloj vili u Zuccalistrase 4 u Minhenu; Heydich i njegova ena su iveli na istoj adresi.
On, kao vođa SD je nazvan "C", njegova kancelarija "Zentrale deinsttelle des SD". U junu 1933. je rođen njegov prvi sin Klaus. Godina preuzimanja moći 1933, takođe je donela čin SS Brigadefuhrer-a. SD je sada imao svoje sedite u Wittelsbacherpalace u ulici Biennerstrase u Minhenu. 9. novembra SD je postala nezavisna SS kancelarija/odeljak. Tokom novembra i decembra 1934, SD se preselio u Wilhelmstrase 102 u Berlinu. 17. juna 1936, Reinhard Heydrich je postao "Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD". 27. septembra 1939, Reichssicherheitshauptamt je osnovan sa Heydrichom na čelu. 1940. on je bio izglasani predsednik "der internationalen Kriminalpolizeilichen Kommision".
Početkom nemačke kampanje na zapadu, Heydrich je zavrio pilotski ispit. Tokom kampanje u Norvekoj, leteo je od Stavenger-a do Engleske i kotske sa Me 110, nekoliko izviđačkih letova. Za svoje herojsko ponaanje bio je nagrađen bronzanim Frontslungspange i sa Eiserne Kreuz II Klasse. Sredinom maja 1940. vraćen je u Berlin. 1. januara 1940 postao je Reichsleiter des Fachamtes fechten im NS-Reichsband fur leibesubungen. Tokom kampanje u Rusiji Heydrich je opet sluio kao borbeni pilot. U junoj Rusiji i bio je hagraen s silberne Frontflugspange i sa Eiserne Kreuz I Klasse.
23. septembra 1941. Hitler je otpustio Reichsprotektor fur Bohmen und Mahren Constantin-a Von Neurath, iz njegove kancelarije i postavio od 27. septembra 1941 Reinharda Heydricha na mesto Reichsprotektor-a. U isto vreme je pokrenut SS-Oberggruppenfuhrer. Fuhrer je odredio Heydrich-a da napravi protektorat u potpunoj harmoniji sa Reich-om. Karl Hermann Frank, Staatssekretor, koji je dolazio iz Sudetenland je određen da mu asistira.
U Pragu, Heydrich je simulirao komandu tokom zvanične ceremonije na Hardcany tvrđavi. Sa enom i decom preselio se u tvrđavu Jungfern-Breschan koja se nalazi oko dvedeset kilometara od Praga. Kontradiktorno pogrenoj informaciji koja je rasprostranjena danas, mere preduzete od strane Heydrich-a su bile dobro primljene. Dve stotine hiljada pari cipela su besplatno podeljene i dnevna sledovanja duvana su zaista uvećana. Heydrich je takođe imao plan da renovira Prag, i da ga uradi u stilu nemačkih gradova, i da ga spoji nemačkim sistemom autoputa sa Berlinom.
Pored Heydrichove pozicije kao Reichsprotektor-a on je sačuvao mesto u kancelariji kao ef Reichssicherheitshauptamt. Bio je takav kapacitet da je 20. januara 1942. vodio konferenciju koja se odrala u vili Am Grose Wennsee 56/58 u Berlinu. Reichsmarschall Herman Goering je ovlastio Heydrich-a da napravi pripreme za konačno reenje jevrejskog problema. Nasuprot tvrdnji posleratnih publicista, predmet NS Nemačke nije bilo fizičko istrebljivanje jevreja, već dovođenje kraja jevrejskom uticaju, to se odigralo sutinski u saradnji sa jevrejskim organizacijama. Podsticana je inicijativa emigracije jevrejskog stanovnitva u Palestinu. Kao primer ove politike mogu napomenuti "Haavana - sporazum" i "Rubbe-Wohlthat - sporazum. Za detaljno objanjenje oba pomenuta pojma preporučujem vam knjigu "Auswanderung der juden aus dem Dritten Reich" od Ingrid Weckert. Ustvari SS je verovao u politiku teranja jevreja da emigriraju. To je bila naknada za rat, koji Nemačka nije izazvala, pa je emigracija počela da opada. U pravcu rata doneta je odluka da se Jevreji evakuiu u izbeglilka naselja na istoku. U ovom kontekstu, s ovim, moemo se setiti da je svetsko jevrejstvo proglasilo rat sa Nemačkom već u martu 1933. Preduzimanje mera da se evakuiu jevreji iz Evrope je bila poenta Wannsee konferencije.
U međuvremenu Edvard Benesch koji je smatrao sebe za predsednika u izgnanstvu je isplanirao da izvri atentat na Reichsprotektor-a Heydricha. Dva neovlaćena oficira bive čeke armije, Jan Kubi and Josef Gabčk , su izabrani za ovu misiju. Zajedno, sa nekoliko drugih, oni su se spustili padobranom u protektorat 28. decembra 1941. Tokom narednih meseci skrivali su se posmatrajući Heydrichov način ivota i pokrete. Vezano za povećane aktivnosti terorističkih grupa, stimuliranih i finansiranih iz Londona, u stvari u Belgiji i Francuskoj, Heydrich, koji je svojim merama obnovio poredak u protektoratu - bio je određen da bude i Chef der Zivilverwaltung for Belgium za severnu Francusku i da bude zatitnih Vischy Francuske.
27. maja 1942. otisao je avionom da se sastane sa Hitlerom. U to vreme atentatori su izabrali da se vrate u predgrđe Praga Holeschowitz, kao mesto najpogodnije za atentat jer je tu Heydrich, kada bi prolazio kolima morao da smanji brzinu. 27. maja 1942. Heydrich je napustio Jungfern-Breschan u 10 časova; a oko 10:30 je bio na mestu gde su ga atentatori čekali. Vozio se u svom tamno zelenom Mercedes Benz-u. Jedan od ubica, Gabčik, uperio je pitolj u Heydricha i povukao obarač. Nita se nije dogodilo. Oruje je "napravilo greku" i nije opalilo. Heydrich je onda izvadio svoj pitolj i ubio Grabička. Za to vreme, drugi ubica, bacio je bombu koja je eksplodirala blizu zadnjeg desnog točka Mercedesa. Heydrich je bio ozbiljno povređen od gelera, ali je i pored toga pucao nekoliko **** na Kubia. Potom je već postao iznemogao. Jedna čeka dama pourila je da pomogne Heydrich-u, tako da je preneen do Bulovka bolnice gde su i čeki i nemački doktori pokuavali da ga odre u ivotu due od jedne nedelje. Naalost, nije bilo uspeha. Jutra 4. juna 1942. godine Reinchard Heydrich je umro.
Kovčeg sa smrtnim ostacima Reichsprotektor-a se nalazi u prostorijama drave, prekriven zastavom sa Svastikom, u palati Hradcan tvrđave. Počasna garda Wehrmacht-a i SS oficira paljivo posmatra. U podne 7. juna 1942. kovčeg je vozom preneen iz Praga u Berlin, da bi se nalazio u zemlji u Reichssicherheitshahptamt, Prinz Albericht Schtrase 8 i kasnije, 9. januara 1942. u mozaičnoj hali nove Reichschancellery. Tokom posmrtne ceremonije, Reichsfuhrer SS Heinrich Himmler je odrao svečani govor u kome je istakao veliko delo Reincharda Heydricha. Zadnji govornik je bio Adolf Hitler, koji ga je nazvao jednim od najboljih nacional-socijalista, jednim od najvećih branioca ideje nemačkog Reich-a i jednim od najvećih unitivača neprijatelja Reich-a. Hitler je odlikovao palog heroja sa zlatnim Vervunde tenabzeichen i Oberstestufe des Deutschen Ordens. Kovčeg sa Heydrichovim telom je smeten na lafet od topa koji su vukli 6 crnih konja i transportovan je iz Wilhelmstrase na groblje. Tamo je Reinchard Heydrich ostavljen da počiva.
Na koji način mi, nacional-socijalisti 21. veka, moemo da pratimo primer koji nam je Reinchard Heydrich dao za vreme ivota. Na prvom mestu moramo verovati bezuslovno u večnu nacional-socijalističku ideologiju i moramo biti spremni na bilo ta to je neophodno za budućnost Arijevske Rase. Naa je sveta dunost da se borimo protiv neprijatelja sa nečuvenom okrutnoću. Ukoliko je neophodno, koristićemo konspiracione načine, dok ćemo u drugim situacijama koristiti oruje. Mi ne prepoznajemo ispravnost demokratskih sistema koji vladaju Evropom od 1945. i na cilj je da prema tome pokorimo demokrate i eliminiemo prominentne političare ovih uasnih vremena. Kada mi kao nacional-socijalisti elimo da povratimo političku i vojnu moć, jo uvek postoji dug put za to. Veoma retko danas moete sresti političare koji mogu da se uporede sa nacional-socijalistima u svom slavnom periodu iz dvadesetih, tridesetih i četrdesetih godina ovog veka. To je uvreda za svakog iskrenog i ubeđenog nacional-scijalistu, kada ga mediji kontrolisani od strane jevreja stavljaju u istu grupu sa političarima koji se trude da budu nacionalisti i patriote, samo pomislite na izvesne ljude u Belgiji i Austriji, oni u poređenju sa pravim nacional-socijalistima. Ti političari nemaju ba nita sa politikom naeg Fuhrera Adolfa Hitlera, ponavljano oni se distanciraju od takozvanih "zločina Trećeg Reich-a", a ponekad čak isplaćuju priloge najgorem neprijatelju obdarenog Arijevskog čoveka: JEVREJU. U ove ljude moramo vie sumnjati nego čak u hrićane, liberalne i socijalističke političare; oni nisu nita drugo sem oličenja slabosti i kukavičluka. ivot SS Obergruppenfuhrer-a Reichard Heydricha nam pokazuje pravi put. Ne smemo nikada napustiti taj put. Samo će tako pobeda biti naa!
Heil Hitler!!!
 
Old March 30th, 2015 #17
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Default Stefan Tvrtko I Kotromanić

Nenad erović

Stefan Tvrtko I Kotromanić
(1353 1391)



Translated from Serbian by Dejan Djurovic

Tvrtko I Kotromanić was the Bosnian ban from 1353 until 1377., the king of Serbs, Bosnia, Seaside and the West Sides from 1377 until 1390 and the king of Raka, Bosnia, Dalmatia, Croatia and Seaside from 1390 until 1391.
Tvrtko the First was the son of the duke Vladislav Kotromanić and Jelena ubić. After death of his uncle ban Stjepan II he takes over the throne in 1353. The very first year of his rule his father helped him. After his fathers death his energetic mother helped him. Tvrtko came to power in the period of the great battles, which Hungarian king Lajo the Great led against Venice because of its estate in Dalmatia and also against Serbs. As the Hungarian vassal he and his mother put lots of efforts to turn Dalmatian towns against Venice. Despite all of this Hungarians were not satisfied by his efforts so they forced him to give them Hum to the river of Neretva as the dowry of Jelisaveta, daughter of Stjepan II, the wife of the king Arthur. When Hungarians tried to put more pressure on Tvrtko he decided to answer them using his army. Hungarians sent two armed forces against Bosnia but both forces were defeated: the first one under the leadership of Lajo on the foot of the town of Sokolac, the other one on the foot of Srebrenik. After these battles Tvrtko tried to strengthen his grip on power that caused the riot of landownership in 1366. The head of the riot was Tvrtkos younger brother Vuk. The riot became an open war and as the result of these events Tvrtko and his mother were expelled from Bosnia. Vuk was appointed the new governor. Because of that Tvrtko asked the help of the Hungarian king and by his help he came back on power in Bosnia. During 1366 and 1367 Tvrtko succeeded in his intention to calm his land down and his brother had to flee to Dubrovnik. Afterwards Vuk tried to activate high Vaticansauthorities and the Hungarian Court in achieving his goals but it wasnt successful.


By the death of Serbian king Uros in 1371 died out the last member of the dynasty Nemanjic. When the king Vukasin died in the battle on the river Marica in 1371 there was not a genuine Serbian ruler any more. After these events which had had serious consequences for the entire Serbianship Tvrtko came out with his intention to sit in the Serbian throne. As he was the grandson of Jelisaveta, the daughter of the king Dragutin, which was married with his grandfather Stjepan Kotroman that would say he was Nemanjic taking into consideration the female members of that family- he asked for the Serbian Crown..


He had very good relations with the duke Lazar. At that time Lazar was the owner of Moravska Serbia and was as well as Tvrtko the neighbour of the very aggressive head of a tribal state Nikola Altomanovic whose rule was spread on areas from Rudnik to the coast, along the river Drina and along towns like Gacko, Bileca, and Trebinje. Nikola Altomanovic openly helped Tvrtko`s brother Vuk in the above mentioned riot, he also fought against Dubrovnik and he took over Rudnik from Lazar. He wanted to seize Prizren and to become the main ruler of Serbian lands. Uniting their forces Tvrtko and the Duke Lazar defeated Nikola Altomanovic and destroyed his power in 1373. By sharing his estate the Bosnian ban Tvrtko joined part of Serbian lands in Podrinje to Bosnia. As the ruler of one part of the former Nemanjic` estate Tvrtko accepted to tie his rule to their tradition. That`s why it wasn`t very difficult for him to accept the attitude of his chief administrator Vlatko who persuaded him that the Serbian Crown was intended to be his. Tvrtko The First was crowned for the king on the newly conquered area. The act of crowning probably took place on The Holy Dimitrus Day in the autumn of 1377 in the monastery of Mileeva, the place of the remarkable cult of Saint Sava, the founder of Serbian Orthodox Church. He was crowned by the crown of Serbian Royal Dynasty the king of Serbs, Bosnia, Seaside and the West Sides. He added the name Stefan that used to be symbolic medieval custom among all Serbian rulers. The crowning of Tvrtko was accepted by all prominent Serbian rulers as well as by Dubrovnik and Venice and he rising himself to the level of ruler and adopting titles and ceremonial of Serbian Court he tightened his power in Bosnia.


After the death of king Lajo The Great in 1382 Hungarian queen trying to win Tvrtko over to her side gave him the town of Kotor in 1385. Tvrtko was very interested in it because he wanted Bosnia to get its exit to sea and in that way not to be dependent of Dubrovniks port anymore. Therefore he founded the town Novi in 1382 as the fortified Bosnian port. When the king Tvrtko started to build his town he named it after The Holy Stephen, in memory and remembrance of his sacrifice. After a period of time the name was altered to "Novi". When the first merchant ships began to carry salt from Novi appeared the first problems with Dubrovnik. Dubrovnik considered trade and carriage of salt as its monopoly and therefore the new Tvrtko`s fortress was dangerous competition. The position for the new town was carefully chosen in accordance with the need of the Bosnian State. The chosen locality was on the north side of the entrance of the Bay of Boka Kotorska in the district called Dracevica. The building of the first fortress started at the very end of May in 1382 and was finished in September the same year. The first fortress was at the very coast of Topla`s bay. The location of the terrain was suitable for defense of possible attacks that was very significant at the time. Beside this there were good facilities for docking of boats and ships and building of a port near the town. Novi started its life by opening of the square for trade in salt with warehouses round it on the river Sutorina near the town in August 1382. The foundation of Novi had in its root the very clear idea and the aim to represent the square for trade in salt.


Tvrtko wasnt satisfied by taking over Kotor in 1385, he also wanted to take over the whole Dalmatia. Soon he took over Klis the cradle of the family ubić in 1387. He was stopped for a while because at the time Turkey attacked Serbia and Bosnia. A part of Turkish army was defeated near Bileća in 1388. In the battle of Kosovo polje in 1389 Tvrtko sent a part of his army under the lead of the duke Vlatko Vuković, the winner of Bileca battle. The Bosnian unit had little loss during the battle so that the duke Vlatko informed Tvrtko that the Christians were winners. There is no doubt that Tvrtko fought against Turks in Kosovo`s battle as the Serbian king who was obliged to protect lands of his parents and their ancestors The Serbian refinement. He was sure that his army and the forces of the Serbian regional rulers had won the battle of Kosovo Polje. Accordingly Tvrtko sent letters to all Christian lands spreading good news about his big success. Among many replied letters there was the stylized one from Florence written by well-known humanist Colluccio Salutati who praised and glorified the kingdom of Bosnia which had been given blessed opportunity to fight and defeat such enemy, he also praised the heroes who killed the sultan Murat, and the very king who won that magnificent battle which will never be forgotten.


In the summer of 1390 towns like Split, Trogir, Sibenik as well as islands like Brac, Hvar and Korcula were subdued by Tvrtko. Tvrtko had genuine power over Dalmatian towns and almost entire Croatia except the town of Zadar. About his short rulership over Croatia a little data remained. Among some Latin papers Tvrtko was mentioned for the first time on the 10th July 1390 as the king of Bosnia, Dalmatia, Croatia and seaside. He died suddenly at the height of his fame and success in March of 1391.


Tvrtko`s death spell the end to the brilliant period of Bosnian history. Regional rulers started to strengthen their power to disadvantage of the power of the Bosnian kingdom. The absence of the firm land organization accelerated the fall of the rulers' authority. The king's death caused the negative, bad period for Bosnia and short after the whole development of Bosnia was redirected in a wrong way.
http://www.rastko.org.yu/


Before Turkish conquest of Balkans, Bosnia was either part of Serbia or independent Serbian state. Here are map of Europe which show Bosnia as part of Serbian empire:


Stjepan Kotromanic (1322-1353) declares in 1333. a letter to Dubrovnik in which he states: "thus I evoke to the noble ban Stefan my golden seal, so that all may know and see the truth. This is why the seals are equal, two in Latin and two in Serbian and all are sealed in gold". At the time, it was a tradition to give out four letters of the same text in Serbian and Latin. This letter may be found in

Franc Miklosic, Monumenta Serbica, Vienna 1858. str. 105-109
Lj. Stojanovic - "Stare Srpske povelje i pisma" (old Serbian letters), I, 46.


Tvrtko crowned himself on 26 October 1377 as Stefan Tvrtko I by the mercy of God King of Serbs, Bosnia and the Seaside and the Western Lands. Today, some historians consider that he was crowned in Monastery of Mileeva, even there is no evidence of that. Another possibility, supported by archaeological evidences, is that he was crowned in Mile near Visoko in the church which was built in time of Stephen II Kotromanić's reign, where he was also buried alongside his uncle Stjepan II.[3][4] Stefan was the standard title of the rulers from the House of Nemanjić. In 13751377 Tvrtko created a unique genealogy that explicitly stated his descendency from the House of Nemanjić.

And Stefan the King, brother of Milutin the King, Uro II, that held Srem, with his wife Katalina, daughter of the Hungarian King Ladislaus, birthed Uroica and Jelisaveta. And Jelisaveta had three sons: Stefan the Bosnian Ban, Ninoslav and Vladislav. And Vladislav had Tvrtko the Ban and Vuk.
 
Old April 13th, 2015 #18
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The text below about Montenegro is only the excerpt from reportage "Where East Meets West; A Visit to Picturesque Dalmatia, Montenegro and Herzegovina" by Marian Cruger Coffin, from May 1908 edition of National Geographic Magazine.

AN UNCONQUERED RACE

A land of mountains, apparently without valleys, and almost destitute of vegetation. Montenegro seems to have emerged out of a chaos of the goods to be primeval rib of the world. And, in keeping with the country, is the proud and independent character of this race, who have retreated step by step before the Turk from the fat lands they once held, preferring freedom in their rocky fastnesses to soft living under the yoke of Islam. And it must be remembered to their everlasting credit that they not only remained free when the other Slav peoples as well as the Greeks, Albanian, and Bulgar fell before the power of the Turk, but that they maintained their independence when all Europe, to the gates of Vienna, trembled before the hosts of the Crescent.

Disembarking at Cattaro (lying baking in the August sun) after a wonderful sail through the tortuous Bocche di Cattaro or "mouths of Cattaro", we took the waiting carriage and started on the climb up the mountain wall to Montenegro or the "Black Mountain". Cattaro is the natural port for Montenegro, but is jealously guarded by Austria, and it was not until we had ascended for more than an hour that we came to the striped black and yellow post that marks the boundary. Our driver stopped to water the horses, to collect his revolver (left at a wayside hut, as it is forbidden to carry weapons over the border), and pointed to his native crags above, saying proudly, "Crnagora". We turned for a last look at the super view spread out below us, the sea shimmering in the distance, and at our feet the land-locked Bocche guarded by the mighty Orjen and the peaks of Herzegovina to the north and west.

We reached Njegus by the waning light. This our first Montenegrin town was the birthplace of the prince, and is a village with one wide street and small, low stone houses. Wherever there is sufficient space little patches of vegetables are cultivated in a series of stone terraces, built to keep the precious soil from being swept away by the heavy rains. These little garden plats give a curiously checker-board aspect to the valleys and hillsides in contrast to the wastes of rocks above.

From Njegus we climbed steadily up through the same dreary crags, even more solitary and impressive in the moonlight, and reached the top of the pass (3.500 feet), from which Cettinje can be seen in the daylight. Scarce a trace of habitation was to be seen. We stopped to water the horses at a wayside hut, wild young girls shyly waited on us, than passed a solitary dwelling and heard to the minor wail of the one-stringed gusle (the national musical instrument) and a strong bass voice singing one of the old ballads, probably about the Tzar Lazar and the field of Kosovo, or possibly of doings of the singer's own immediate forefathers in a border fray against the hated Albanians.

THE CAPITAL OF MONTENEGRO

The Europe we know is left far behind. We drop suddenly from the complexities of modern life into the peace and simplicity of the patriarchal system, still in force in this strange little state where east and west meet so subtly. Here a man's life is of small account, but he will hold his honor above all earthly price, while the ambition of every boy is to be a warrior and rival the deed of the heroes of old.

Twenty years ago Cettinje was a collection of hovels. Now it is a clean, neat little town with wide streets and low stone houses roofed with red tile. There are no attempts at architectural decoration - all is plain and bare and seems to have sprung from the very soil of the mountain-locked plain. It has been called a kindergarten capital, and though but a village in size, conducts itself with the importance befitting the center of the country. It boasts a theater and the Prince's very modest palace, while the large, pretentious embassies of Austria and Russia guard opposite ends of the town like two great bloodhounds waiting to pounce on their prey.

Sights, in the strict sense of the word, there are none, but one may entertain oneself by bargaining in the market with the handsome girls for colored strips of embroidery with which they trim their blouses, chatting with the some one who has a word or two of German or Italian, admiring the medals of the older men gained in the last war with the Turks (proudly shown off by the younger men, the wearers modestly deprecating their own glory), taking a friendly cup of coffee with the tailor who is making one a national costume, or waiting for a glimpse of some member of the royal family to pass by, possibly the Prince himself.

But the amusement of all other that never palled on us was watching this handsome race airing their finery in the open streets of Cettinje. The national costume seems designed to show of the grace and dignity inherent in even the humblest Montenegrin-crimson and gold sparkle in the sunshine, in dazzling contrast to the somber tints of the encircling mountains, real gold, too, which is elaborately worked in the garment by hand. From the royal family down, the men wear a long, wide-skirted coat of light grey, white, robin's egg blue, or dark green cloth, embroidered in gold, or dark red, open wide in front over a crimson waistcoat heavily decorated in gold, and confined about the waist by a broad sash of plaid silk. The belt is stuck full of weapons, knives, pistols, etc., for our friend considers his toilette incomplete without such accessories, and indeed one's eyes become so accustomed to seeing every man a walking arsenal that on returning to work-a-day Europe people look strangely undressed! Dark blue breeches, baggy to the knee, with the leg either incased in white homespun and low string shoes on the feet, this is thoroughly characteristic, or if the wearer be a bit of a dandy a pair of high black riding boots will be worn instead: a cane for dress occasions and the cocky stiff-brimmed cap complete the costume.

A tale hangs by the cap. The Montenegrins are a conservative people and, like all the Serbs of the Balkans, look back to the days of the great Serbian Empire when the Slavs held most of the Peninsula. The highest point of glory was reached under Stephen Dushan, 1337-1356, who planned to keep the Turk out of Europe, but who unfortunately died at the height of his career. In 1389 the different Slav peoples made their last united stand under Tzar Lazar Gubijanovich on the plain of Kosovo. The day was at first with Tzar Lazar, but, as usual in the Peninsula, jealousies prevented a concerted action and he was betrayed by his son in law, Vuk Brankovich, who coveted the crown. He deserted to the enemy with 12.000 followers, a frightful slaughter ensued, and the Balkans fell to the invader. This fateful 15th of June is a day of mourning throughout Serb lands and the Montenegrin cap is worn in commemoration - the black is for mourning, and the red-centered crown for the blood shed on the field of Kosovo. A semicircle of gilt braid encloses the Prince's initials H.I., the circle typifying the rainbow of hope that the Turk will be driven from Europe and the great Serbian Empire again established.

A PROUD AND HANDSOME RACE

The dress of the women is not so gaudy as that of the men, though very graceful. Like their brothers, they wear the national cap without the gold braid, the married women being distinguished by a black lace veil falling behind. The hair is parted and the mass of heavy braids forms a coronet for the well-carried heads. They wear a soft, silky blouse with open sleeves and trimmed with strips of delicate embroidery, a band of which forms the low collar, then red or black velveteen bolero heavily braided in gold, and over all a semi-fitting, open, sleeveless coat reaching to the knees of the same delicate shades as worn by the men.

It would be hard to find a handsomer race; the men seldom under six feet, strut about like war lords. Their only business in the life for generations has been to protect their families from Turkish raids when not engaged in actual warfare. Consequently most of the hard works has fallen to the women's share, which they cheerfully perform, often carrying heavy loads, such as great blocks of ice, from the higher mountains down to the towns. Such labor and the hard conditions of life age them early, but when young the girls are really beautiful, with noble, Madonna-like faces; the type is rather mixed in coloring, neither light nor dark. We saw many fine gray eyes and especially noticed a lovely shade of ruddy gold hair.

Travelling in Montenegro is delightfully simple; there are no trains and only one carriage road in and out of Cettinje: you either go by carriage or you take a pack pony and scramble over the mountain tracks. It is said that Prince Nickola wishes to make Niksic his capital, as being more in the center of the principality; the one road from Cetinje connects with it via Podgorica, but it is doubtful if the scheme will be carried through, as Cetinje is considered by the representatives of the Powers to be the "jumping-off place" and certainly Niksic would be much less accessible.

The free mountaines of Monte Negro -the tomb of thousands and thousands Turks
 
Old April 13th, 2015 #19
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Old January 19th, 2016 #20
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