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Old August 18th, 2008 #1
F.W. Braun
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Default The Genetic Map of Europe: strong differences between Northern and Southern Europeans

Biologists have constructed a genetic map of Europe showing the degree of relatedness between its various populations.

All the populations are quite similar, but the differences are sufficient that it should be possible to devise a forensic test to tell which country in Europe an individual probably comes from [but but but...race does not exist!], said Manfred Kayser, a geneticist at the Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands.

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/13/sc...nt&oref=slogin
 
Old August 19th, 2008 #2
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The Genetic Map of Europe (go to site to see maps).

Biologists have constructed a genetic map of Europe showing the
degree of relatedness between its various populations.
By NICHOLAS WADE
Published: August 13, 2008

> All the populations are quite similar, but the differences are
sufficient that it should be possible to devise a forensic test to
tell which country in Europe an individual probably comes from, said
Manfred Kayser, a geneticist at the Erasmus University Medical
Center in the Netherlands.

The map shows, at right, the location in Europe where each of the
sampled populations live and, at left, the genetic relationship
between these 23 populations. The map was constructed by Dr. Kayser,
Dr. Oscar Lao and others, and appears in an article in Current
Biology published on line on August 7.

The genetic map of Europe bears a clear structural similarity to the
geographic map. The major genetic differences are between
populations of the north and south (the vertical axis of the map
shows north-south differences, the horizontal axis those of east-
west). The area assigned to each population reflects the amount of
genetic variation in it.

Europe has been colonized three times in the distant past, always
from the south. Some 45,000 years ago the first modern humans
entered Europe from the south. The glaciers returned around 20,000
years ago and the second colonization occurred about 17,000 years
ago by people returning from southern refuges. The third invasion
was that of farmers bringing the new agricultural technology from
the Near East around 10,000 years ago.

The pattern of genetic differences among present day Europeans
probably reflects the impact of these three ancient migrations, Dr.
Kayser said.

The map also identifies the existence of two genetic barriers within
Europe. One is between the Finns (light blue, upper right) and other
Europeans. It arose because the Finnish population was at one time
very small and then expanded, bearing the atypical genetics of its
few founders.

The other is between Italians (yellow, bottom center) and the rest.
This may reflect the role of the Alps in impeding free flow of
people between Italy and the rest of Europe.

Data for the map were generated by gene chips programmed to test and
analyze 500,000 sites of common variation on the human genome,
although only the 300,000 most reliable sites were used for the map.
Dr. Kayser's team tested almost 2,500 people and analyzed the data
by correlating the genetic variations in all the subjects. The
genetic map is based on the two strongest of these sets of
correlations.

The gene chips require large amounts of DNA, more than is available
in most forensic samples. Dr. Kayser hopes to identify the sites on
the human genome which are most diagnostic for European origin.
These sites, if reasonably few in number, could be tested for in
hair and blood samples, Dr. Kayser said.

Genomic sites that carry the strongest signal of variation among
populations may be those influenced by evolutionary change, Dr.
Kayser said. Of the 100 strongest sites, 17 are found in the region
of the genome that confers lactose tolerance, an adaptation that
arose among a cattle herding culture in northern Europe some 5,000
years ago. Most people switch off the lactose digesting gene after
weaning, but the cattle herders evidently gained a great survival
advantage by keeping the gene switched on through adulthood.
 
Old September 3rd, 2008 #3
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Default Human geography is mapped in the genes

Human geography is mapped in the genes



Quote:
The genes of a European person can be enough to pinpoint their ancestry down to their home country, claim two new studies.

By reading single-letter DNA differences in the genomes of thousands of Europeans, researchers can tell a Finn from a Dane and a German from a Brit. In fact a visual genetic map mirrors the geopolitical map of the continent, right down to Italy's boot.

"It tells us that geography matters," says John Novembre, a population geneticist at the University of California, Los Angeles, who led one of the studies. Despite language, immigration and intermarriage, genetic differences between Europeans are almost entirely related to where they were born.

When both teams plotted thousands of genomes on a single graph along with their country of origin, a striking map of Europe emerged. Spanish and Portuguese genomes clustered "south-west" of French genomes, while Italian genomes jutted "south-east" of Swiss.

The map was so accurate that when Novembre's team placed a geopolitical map over their genetic "map", half of the genomes landed within 310 kilometres of their country of origin, while 90% fell within 700 km.

Both teams found that southern Europeans boast more overall genetic diversity than Scandinavians, British and Irish.
Ref: Human geography is mapped in the genes
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Old August 24th, 2009 #4
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And Finns diverge from other europeans because they are mixed with Lapps and Eskimos.
 
Old September 27th, 2009 #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RickHolland View Post
And Finns diverge from other europeans because they are mixed with Lapps and Eskimos.
It's more likely that unmixed Uralics, like the Finns (as opposed to Hungarians, who because they were located in Central Europe mixed with Aryans), are not exactly like Aryans, but rather something intermediate between west Eurasian humans and east Eurasian humans.

If you look at other Uralic groups like Nenets and Khanty, this hypothesis looks even stronger. In addition, the so-called "Asiatic" traits of Russians probably stem instead from some historical mixing with Uralic peoples.
 
Old September 27th, 2009 #6
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Uralic groups all show that they are partially Caucasian, it's likely Finns that mixed with them in ancient times not vice versa. At any rate their population isn't significant enough to describe the difference, my explanation is just that Finns were in Europe before everyone else, that's what I think. You'll notice that there is no N haplotype in any Asian countries, this is likely because N is Caucasian, I really don't believe that Finns are Asian even though they tend to act odd. If N was an Asian group then it wouldn't make sense for the vast majority of Finns to be blond while the vast majority of them were all part Asian. Also it has been determined that the most ancient strain of N is in Finland not vice versa.

Last edited by psychologicalshock; September 27th, 2009 at 10:46 PM.
 
Old October 3rd, 2009 #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by psychologicalshock View Post
Uralic groups all show that they are partially Caucasian, it's likely Finns that mixed with them in ancient times not vice versa. At any rate their population isn't significant enough to describe the difference, my explanation is just that Finns were in Europe before everyone else, that's what I think. You'll notice that there is no N haplotype in any Asian countries, this is likely because N is Caucasian, I really don't believe that Finns are Asian even though they tend to act odd. If N was an Asian group then it wouldn't make sense for the vast majority of Finns to be blond while the vast majority of them were all part Asian. Also it has been determined that the most ancient strain of N is in Finland not vice versa.
Perhaps there is credibility to the Indo-Uralic hypothesis then. Particularly wrt the part about N haplotype. Finns and other Uralics probably lived in Europe prior to the migrations of the Aryans if this is the case.
 
Old October 4th, 2009 #8
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Quote:
strong differences between Northern and Southern Europeans
]

Known in Judeo-Christianity as the "Protestants" and the "Catholics".
 
Old October 4th, 2009 #9
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Wow, I missed this thread back in 2008 ...a 'scientific' study that tells us all Euros are basically family ...I never would have thought

You guys never cease to amaze me.
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Old January 10th, 2010 #10
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Some interesting papers about Autosomal DNA testing found on DNA Tribes.

Genetic Affiliations of Individuals within World Regions

http://www.dnatribes.com/sample-resu...affinities.pdf


Genetic Relationships in Southern Europe

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-03-28.pdf


Genetic Evidence of Indo-Europeans and Substrates in the West

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-07-29.pdf


Genetic Evidence of Indo-Europeans and Substrates in the West (Part Two)

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-08-29.pdf


Who are the Americans?

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2008-08-29.pdf


Genetic Relationships in Northern Europe

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2008-11-28.pdf


Patterns of Gene Flow through the Inland Silk Routes

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2008-12-26.pdf


Patterns of Gene Flow through the Coastal Silk Routes

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-01-31.pdf


Genetic Relationships in Africa

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-02-28.pdf



Genetic Relationships along the Pacific Rim of Asia

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-04-30.pdf


Genetic Relationships among South American Indians

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-05-30.pdf


Genetic Relationships in Mesoamerica

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-06-27.pdf


Generals of the Steppes: Basic Genetic Contributions in Tungusic, Mongolic, and Turkic Populations

http://dnatribes.com/dnatribes-digest-2009-12-29.pdf

Siberia: Basic Genetic Contributions in the European and Siberian Taiga

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-11-30.pdf

Sages and Outlaws: Basic Genetic Contributions near the Hindu Kush

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2009-10-31.pdf
 
Old May 31st, 2011 #11
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Georgia and the Caucasus Mountain


http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2010-10-28.pdf


Kurgan Riddles: The Thracian Sub-Region of Europe

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2010-05-31.pdf


Two Magyars: Genetic Contributions to Hungary and Székely

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2010-06-30.pdf


A Closer Look at the Celtic Sub-Region of Europe


http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2010-08-31.pdf


DNA Tribes Digest for September 30, 2010: Gallia Belgica: The Belgic Sub-Region of Europe

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2010-09-30.pdf


DNA Tribes Digest for November 30, 2010: An Updated Analysis of the Italian Sub-Region

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2010-11-30.pdf


DNA Tribes Digest for December 31, 2010: An Updated Analysis of the Portuguese Sub-Region

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2010-12-31.pdf


DNA Tribes Digest for January 31, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Balkan Sub-Region

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2011-01-31.pdf


DNA Tribes Digest for March 31, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Germanic Sub-Region

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2011-03-31.pdf


DNA Tribes Digest for April 29, 2011: An Updated Analysis of the Greek Sub-Region

http://www.dnatribes.com/dnatribes-d...2011-04-29.pdf
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Old June 1st, 2011 #12
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Using a computer to visualise change in biological organisms

In his pioneering work On Growth and Form published in 1917, the biologist D'Arcy Thompson (1860 - 1948) laid the foundations of what is now called bio-mathematics.

Here is a picture of D'Arcy Thompson. You can see more about him in our History of Mathematics archive.



http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~...res/darcy6.gif
 
Old December 2nd, 2011 #14
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Most true White Europeans will fall into one of three Y-DNA genetic haplogroups, which can be broadly classified as:

R1b - "Celtic"

I - "Germanic"

R1a - "Scythian"

Populations inhabiting the Mediterranean region generally have a higher percentage of the Y-DNA genetic haplotype known as E3b, which is found in Northern Africa among the Berbers and in Southern Europe among the Southern Italians, Sicilians, Greeks, etc.

The Semitic peoples (Jews and Arabs) generally have a higher percentage of J haplotype DNA.

Here is a map showing the breakdown of the various Y-DNA haplogroups found in Europe:



As can be seen, the areas of Europe traditionally associated with "Celtic" populations (Ireland, Scotland, Wales, as well as parts of England, Spain, France, etc.) have a higher percentage of R1b DNA, shown in red.

Areas of Europe traditionally associated with the Germanic peoples (Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and the Netherlands) have a higher percentage of I DNA, shown in pink.
 
Old December 2nd, 2011 #15
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In looking into the genetics of White Europeans, particularly those inhabiting Western Europe, it should be understood that our concept of who the Celts were and are is very much based on speculation that has circulated among scholars and academians over the past 300 years, and has changed a great deal during that time, as it is likely to continue to change in years to come as archaelogists and anthropologists reexamine their notions and conclusions by comparing their theories with the evidence.

In fact, it was not until 1707 that the Gaelic and Brythonic speaking inhabitants of the British Isles and their cousins in Brittany and Galacia on the European continent came to be identified as "Celts" by the 17th century antiquarian Edward Lhuyd, who first hypothesised that the Irish, Scots, Manx, Welsh, Cornish and Bretons represented the descendants of the ancient tribes referred to as the "Keltoi" by the Greeks and the "Celtae" by the Romans, who learned of these people through the writings of early Classical explorers.

These ancient accounts offer reason to doubt that the original early Celts even spoke languages that are related to those that we consider to be "Celtic" today, as the Gaelic/Gaulish/Galacian languages along with Cymraeg (Welsh) belong to the Indo-European family of languages that first evolved in Eastern Europe and the Near East; whereas the original Celts may have spoken an older, non-Indo-European language, more closely related to Basque. In fact, the Gaels/Gauls/Galacians as well as the Cymry are said in ancient records to have come to the British Isles from a region once known as Scythia, which covered a vast territory in Eastern Europe located roughly in the area of the present-day Ukraine, very near the original homeland of the ancient Aryan or Indo-European root language

Only one tribe in the ancient era called themselves by a name resembling "Celts" and these were the Celtici, a tribe located in southwestern Spain. These are in fact the first "Celts" mentioned in history by the writer Herodotus in 450 B.C.E., who reported:

Quote:
"For the Ister (Danube river), beginning in the land of the Celts and the city of Pyrene, flows through the middle of Europe. The Celts live beyond the Pillars of Hercules (straits of Gibraltar) and border on the Cynetes (Conii), who are the westernmost inhabitants of Europe."
Later, as the Gauls (known by tribal names such as the Galli and Galaeci) spread into Western Europe infiltrating lands originally occupied by the indigenous Celts, they would have introduced their Indo-European language and culture to the pre-Indo-European Celts who were most likely the descendants of the earliest native inhabitants of Western Europe whose ancestors were responsible for erecting the many megalithic monuments and barrows found throughout the territories inhabited by the Celts.

Writing in the first century B.C.E. Diodorus Siculus spoke of how the Celts and Gauls were originally two distinct people, but had become merged, saying:

Quote:
"It is useful now to point out a distinction unknown by most. Those tribes that live inland from Massalia (Marseilles) as well as those around the Alps and on the eastern side of the Pyrenees are called Celts. But those tribes in the northern area near the ocean, those near the Hercynian mountain (probably in today’s Czech republic) and those beyond as far as Scythia are called Galatae. The Romans, however, group all these tribes together as Galatae."
In his Description of Greece, the writer Pausanias explains the how the adoption of the Gallic culture by the Celts led to confusion between the identities of the two groups, saying:

Quote:
“These Gauls inhabit the most remote portion of Europe, near a great sea that is not navigable to its extremities, and possesses ebb and flow and creatures quite unlike those of other seas...It was late before the name “Gauls” came into vogue; for anciently they were called Celts both amongst themselves and by others.”
One of the most famous references comes from Julius Caesar in his description of the Gallic Wars, De Bello Gallico, written in the middle of the first century B.C.E.:

Quote:
"Gaul is a whole divided into three parts, one of which is inhabited by the Belgae, another by the Aquitani, and a third by a people called in their own tongue Celtae, in the Latin Galli. All of these are different one from another in language, institutions, and laws. The Galli are separated from the Aquitani by the river Garonne, from the Belgae by the Marne and the Seine...The mainland of Britain is inhabited by a people who claim to be indigenous to the island, on the coast live the immigrant Belgae, who crossed over for war and pillage, but settled to cultivate the land...Those living inland do not sow grain but live on milk and meat and wear clothes of animal hides. All Britons paint their skin with woad which makes them blue and more terrifying to confront in battle."
Thus the Gaelic/Gaulish/Galacian and Cymric languages are identified as "Celtic" today because they were adopted by the Celtic inhabitants of Western Europe when they absorbed the Galatae and Cimbri (Cimmerian) tribes from eastern Europe who settled amongst them, as similarly the Anglo-Saxon (English) language was adopted by the Celtic Britons when they absorbed the Germanic Angles and Saxons who settled in their country in the 400's A.D. The people themselves did not become genetically "English", they were still predominately Celtic, but adopted the language of the Germanic Anglo-Saxon ruling class, who were a minority compared to the native Britons.

If we look at genetics through DNA research, we find that the majority of the people living in countries like Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall are predominately of the R1b genetic haplogroup. The R1b haplotype is in fact the predominant haplogroup in Western Europe and occurs among a majority of the population in the same areas where the ancient megalithic monuments (dolmens, cromlechs, menhirs, and barrows like Newgrange, Callanish, Maes Howe, Avebury, Stonehenge, and Carnac) are found - which suggests that the majority of the people who we identify as "Celtic" are in fact descended from an aboriginal population that was native to Western Europe all the way back to the Stone Age.

Another interesting thing to consider is that Indo-European languages like Gaelic and Cymraeg would not have evolved among these people, but would have been introduced from Eastern Europe - the Aryan/Indo-European homeland, where the predominate haplotype is R1a - a fact which perfectly fits the old histories that record the Gaels as having originated in Scythia (present day Ukraine). So the Gaels/Gauls/Galacians who we think of today as being "Celtic" would not originally have been considered as such, as the real "Celts" - the prehistoric R1b haplotype megalithic culture would have spoken a non-Indo European language probably very closely related to Basque. In fact, the Basque people who have remained a relatively isolated population in the Pyrenees mountains between Spain and France have one of the highest percentages of R1b DNA in all of Europe, exceeded only by the inhabitants of Western Ireland, Scotland, Cornwall and Wales, while among the remaing populations of both France and Spain R1b is still the predominate haplotype, though not found in the excessively high levels as it is among the Basques and the populations of the Western portion of the British Isles.

This leaves us to draw the conclusion that while the Gaelic and Cymric languages evolved among an R1a population native to Eastern Europe, that these languages were at some point brought to Western Europe by their speakers who settled amongst the R1b Celts (who were the native population of Western Europe) and were eventually absorbed by the indigenous Celtic population that they settled among, though their language survived and was adopted by the Celts.
 
Old December 2nd, 2011 #16
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The Gaels who first came to Ireland from the European continent by way of Spain were of Scythian origin. Scythia was a vast region that in ancient times encompassed much of Eastern Europe including present day Ukraine and the Caucasus. The Scythians were known by many names: Scyths, Sacae, Skuthes, Skuda, Scoloti, etc. (meaning "archers") and from them the Gaelic tribe known as the Scotti or Scots is descended. It was in that part of Scythia, located along the current Polish-Ukranian border, that the ancient province of Galicia is found.

Below: Map of the ancient Gallic Kingdom of Galicia in Scythia (present day Ukraine-Polish border region)


Galicia was the original homeland of the Gallic people, who were the earliest ancestors of the Gauls of Europe, and the Gaels of Ireland and Scotland. This history is recalled in the words of the Scottish Declaration of Arbroath, addressed to the Pope in 1320:

Quote:
“Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today. The Britons they first drove out, the Picts they utterly destroyed, and, even though very often assailed by the Norwegians, the Danes and the English, they took possession of that home with many victories and untold efforts; and, as the historians of old time bear witness, they have held it free of all bondage ever since."
The "chronicles and books of the ancients" referred to in the Declaration are undoubtedly the annals contained in the medieval Irish text known as the Lebor Gabala Erenn (Book of the Conquest of Ireland), which describes how the Gaels originated in Scythia and made their way across Europe until they at long last reached Ireland, their prophesied destination:

Quote:
“Now Feinius had two sons: Nenual, [one of the two] whom he left in the princedom of Scythia behind him; Nel, the other son, at the Tower was he born. Now he was a master of all the languages; wherefore one came [to summon him] from Pharaoh, in order to learn the multiplicity of languages from him. But Feinius came out of Asia to Scythia, whence he had gone for the building of the Tower; so that he died in the princedom of Scythia, at the end of forty years, and passed on the chieftainship to his son, Nenual. At the end of forty two years after the building of the Tower, Ninus son of Belus took the kingship of the world…..Now that is the time when Gaedel Glas (from whom are the Gaels descended), was born......Now Sru son of Esru son of Gaedel, he it is who was chieftain for the Gaels who went out of Egypt after Pharaoh was drowned with his host in the Red Sea of Israel: Seven hundred and seventy years from the Flood till then. Four hundred and forty years from that time in which Pharaoh was drowned, and after Sru son of Esru came out of Egypt, till the time when the sons of Mil came into Ireland.….Forty and Four ships' companies strong went Sru out of Egypt. There were twenty-four wedded couples and three hirelings for every ship. Sru and his son Eber Scot, they were the chieftains of the expedition. It is then that Nenual son of Baath, son of Nenual, son of Feinius Farsaid, prince of Scythia, died; and Sru also died immediately after reaching Scythia....Eber Scot took by force the kingship of Scythia from the progeny of Nenual, till he fell at the hands of Noemius son of Nenual.....For that reason was the seed of Gael driven forth upon the sea, to wit Agnomain and Lamfhind his son, so that they were seven years on the sea, skirting the world on the north side. More than can be reckoned are the hardships which they suffered....they had three ships with a coupling between them, that none of them should move away from the rest. They had three chieftains after the death of Agnomain on the surface of the great Caspian Sea, Lamfhind and Allot and Caicher the druid....It is Caicher who spoke to them,….Caicher the druid said: Rise, said he, we shall not rest until we reach Ireland. What place is that 'Ireland' said Lamfhind son of Agnomain. Further than Scythia is it, said Caicher. It is not ourselves who shall reach it, but our children, at the end of three hundred years from today....Thereafter they settled in the Maeotic Marshes.....It is that Brath who came out of the Marshes along the Torrian Sea to Crete and to Sicily. They reached Spain thereafter. They took Spain by force.....Four ships' companies strong came the Gael to Spain: in every ship fourteen wedded couples and seven unwed hirelings.....Brath had a good son named Breogan, by whom was built the Tower and the city - Braganza was the city's name. From Breogan's Tower it was that Ireland was seen; an evening of a day of winter Ith son of Breogan saw it.”
Below: Map of the province of Galicia in present day Spain


The Scythian origin of the Scots is also recorded in the text known as Chronica de Origine Antiquorum Pictorum (The Pictish Chronicle), which is based on an earlier work, dating to the 7th century, entitled Etymologiae by Isidore of Seville, who wrote:

Quote:
“The race of the Picts has a name derived from the appearance of their bodies. These are played upon by a needle working with small pricks and by the squeezed-out sap of a native plant, so that they bear the resultant marks according to the personal rank of the individual, their painted limbs being tattooed to show their high birth. The Scots, now incorrectly referred to as Irishmen, are really Scotti, because they originated from the land of the Scythians…..It is a well known fact that the Britons arrived in Britain during the third Age of Man (the time between Abraham and David), while the Scotti, that is the Scots, migrated into Scotia or Ireland during the fourth Age of Man (the time between David and Daniel). The Scythian people are born with white hair due to the everlasting snow; and the colour of their hair gives name to the people, and thus they are called Albani: From this people both Scots and Picts descend. Their eyes are so brightly coloured that they are able to see better by night than by day. The Albani people were also neighbours with the Amazones. The Scythian territory was once so large that it reached from India in the east, through the marshland of Meotidas (the Sea of Azov), till the borders of Germania.”
The Picts were simply non-Romanised Britons, as the Romans didn't conquer the entire island of Britain, they ended up building a coast to coast fortification (Hadrian's Wall) to separate Romanised Britain from the non-Romanised Britons living in the northern third of the island of Britain. Because the Britons living north of Hadrian's Wall were not under Roman control, they retained their own indigenous native Celtic culture and language, whereas the Britons living south of Hadrian's wall were more influenced by Roman ways and manners.

The words Briton and Britain themselves come from the Celtic words Pretani and Prydain, which the Britons used to refer to themselves and their island. These words are derived from the Celtic root word Pryd, meaning "to mark" or "draw" and refer to the native Briton practice of painting or tattooing their skin with designs using a dye or ink obtained from the woad plant which produces a blue color; a trait described by Herod of Antioch in the 3rd century A.D., who wrote:

Quote:
"The Britons incise on their bodies coloured pictures of animals, of which they are very proud."
So the Britons (or Prytani, as they called themselves in their own language) were the "painted" or "tattooed people". This is something Julius Caesar himself remarked about in his journals when he invaded Britain in 54 B.C.:

Quote:
"The mainland of Britain is inhabited by a people who claim to be indigenous to the island, on the coast live the immigrant Belgae, who crossed over for war and pillage, but settled to cultivate the land...Those living inland do not sow grain but live on milk and meat and wear clothes of animal hides. All Britons paint their skin with woad which makes them blue and more terrifying to confront in battle."
The immigrant Belgae, mentioned by Caesar as having settled on the coast of Britain, were a group of Gallic tribes which included the Cimbri, who had formerly inhabited the Himmerland in the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, prior to the occupation of that region by the Germanic Danes The Greek historian Plutarch mentions the Cimbri in his Life of Gaius Marius, written in 75 AD:

Quote:
"There are those who say that Gaul was once wide and large enough to reach from the furthest sea and the arctic regions to the Maeotic Sea eastward, where it bordered on Pontic Scythia, and from that point on the Gauls and Scythians were mingled together....so that the whole legion was generally known by the name of Gallo-Scythians. Others say that the Cimmerii, anciently known to the Greeks, were only a small part of the nation, who were driven out upon some quarrel among the Scythians, and passed all along from the Maeotic Sea to Asia, under the conduct of one Lygdamis; and that the greater and more warlike part of them still inhabit the remotest regions lying upon the outer ocean. These are said to live in a densely wooded country hardly penetrable by sunlight, the trees being so close and thick, extending into the interior as far as the Hercynian forest....and from this region the people, anciently called Cimmerii, and thereafter, by a slight change, Cimbri"
Below: Map showing the Gallic colony of Galatia in Anatolia (present day Turkey) circa 100 A.D.


Somewhat earlier, in about 60 B.C., Diodorus Siculus wrote:

Quote:
"the valour of these people [the Britons] and their....ways have been famed abroad. Some men say that it was they who in ancient times overran all of Asia [Minor] and were called "Cimmerians" - time having corrupted the word into the name "Cimbrians" [Brythonic: "Cymru"] as they are now called."
Below: map of the ancient Cimmerian kingdom located in present day Crimea


The Cimbri, or Cymric tribes as they were known in Britain, were descendants of the ancient Cimmerians who originally inhabited what is now the Crimea on the northern shores of the Black Sea bordering Scythia, until they were scattered after generations of intramural struggles for rulership with competing Scythian tribes; not unlike the events described in the Lebor Gabala Erenn.


Below: Map of Cymru (Wales), in Britain, anciently known as Cambria in Latin:


While the Britons living in the southern two-thirds of Britain became more "civilized" under Roman military rule and adopted Roman ways and manners, the Britons living in the northern third of the island beyond Roman control retained their own native Celtic customs and practices, which included tattooing their skin with woad. Thus by the end of the third century AD, the Romans began to refer to the Britons living in the northern third of the island as the "Picti" or Picts (from the Latin word Pictus, meaning "painted"). The term Pict first appears in a in a verse praising the emperor Constantius Chlorus written by the Roman orator Eumenius in 297 AD; while in 416 A.D. the Roman poet Claudian wrote:

Quote:
"This legion, set to guard the furthest Britons, curbs the savage Scot and studies the designs marked with iron on the face of the dying Pict".
These Gaels or Scotti, as they were known to the Romans, eventually established an outpost colony called Dalriada in what is now Argyllshire around the year 500 A.D. About 350 years later, Kenneth MacAlpine, a descendant of both the royal lines of the Irish Scots of Dalriada and of the Picts (who were descendants of the native Britons that inhabited the non-Romanized northern third of Britain) united both tribes to form the Kingdom of Alba, which would eventually become known as "Scotland" several centuries later. At one time Ireland was referred to (in Latin) as Scotia after the Gaels or Scotti. When the Scotti emigrated to the northern third of Britain, that part of Britain came to be known as Scotia Minor while Ireland was known as Scotia Major.

These Irish Scots, together with the Picts and some Viking admixture, became the ancestors of the Highlanders. The Lowland Scots were descended mainly from the native Celtic Britons and Picts together with a bit of admixture from the Angles who came to Britain from Germany during the Dark Ages and settled in Bernicia (Northumbria). The majority of the population of Britain however is descended from the native Celtic Britons, a people who the Germanic Anglo-Saxons referred to as Wealas meaning "strangers", from which the modern words Welsh and Wales are derived. The Britons of Ystrad Clud, Rheged, and Goddodin, which were located in the Scottish Lowlands were ethnically and culturally the same people who are known as the Welsh today, though in Scotland they became the ancestors of the Lowland Scots.
 
Old March 17th, 2013 #17
Daryl Basarab
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It is interesting that this thread is pinned to the top of the forum section.

In most "pro-white" boards, there'd be an attempt to cover it up, call it "infighting," etc.

I'll just say that I 100% agree. All the evidence I see separates Northern Europeans from Southern Europeans. Furthermore, Southern Europeans are intermediates between Northern Europeans and Middle Easterners - mixed with Middle Eastern Blood that is more recent than the Neolithic.

Being a Mix of European and Middle Eastern, Southern Europeans are actually similar to Jews (minus the Khazar component).

To me it is still "White," but it is a genetic difference worth noting. In my opinion everyone EVENTUALLY descends from the middle east, but Southern Europeans have RECENT Middle Eastern origins.

I can think of two message forum that would want to hide this. I won't name any names, but you can take a guess.
 
Old March 22nd, 2013 #18
N.M. Valdez
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Seldin et al,'s European Population Substructure: Clustering of Northern and Southern Populations:

"Using a genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, we observed population structure in a diverse group of Europeans and European Americans. Under a variety of conditions and tests, there is a consistent and reproducible distinction between “northern” and “southern” European population groups: most individual participants with southern European ancestry (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, and Greek) have >85% membership in the “southern” population; and most northern, western, eastern, and central Europeans have >90% in the “northern” population group. Ashkenazi Jewish as well as Sephardic Jewish origin also showed >85% membership in the “southern” population, consistent with a later Mediterranean origin of these ethnic groups. Based on this work, we have developed a core set of informative SNP markers that can control for this partition in European population structure in a variety of clinical and genetic studies."
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I don't know what the truth is, and have said as much.
 
Old April 3rd, 2014 #19
Alex Linder
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http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0402100056.htm

Europeans have three times more Neanderthal genes for lipid catabolism than Asians or Africans
Date: April 2, 2014
Source: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft

Summary:

Contemporary Europeans have as many as three times more Neanderthal variants in genes involved in lipid catabolism than Asians and Africans. Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in modern humans. These shared regions are unevenly distributed across the genome and some regions are particularly enriched with Neanderthal variants.
 
Old August 23rd, 2014 #20
Chahar5
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Yes the Neolithic invasions brought Middle Eastern Genes into europe, and darkened the south of europe where most of the genetic influence occurred. This is also how the Aryan languages entered Europe from their original location in Iran, which is demonstrated by the Anatolian Hypothesis, but it is one country away from being right. The pre neolithic foragers are more closely related to northern europeans, who are whiter than the south europeans. This is also demonstrated by the fact that the northern europeans have a lot of skin pigment mutations on genes such as Herc2, Slc45A2, TYRP1, and MC1R, which show a decreasing cline from north to the south of europe...although south of europe still has these genes in their blood at moderate to high rates, so they are still white.

The real question for whites must be: how much influence did the Neolithic invasions have on europe's gene pool? These farmers were Iranians, based on the latest genetic research although the scientists simply call it Near Eastern. They had very ancient haplogroups such as F and G, and brought those haplogroups to places as far as Germany during the LBK, although those genes are not found in Germans today (these are discovered from the remains of the Neolithic Farmers).

I doubt much, since Europe is too white for their genome to be traced back to these invaders, obviously...it is the white continent. Most likely the influence is about 20 percent, which is what many geneticists say, although there is a school of thought that wants to push it to 3/4 of the genes of europe can be traced back to these Neolithic invaders.
 
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