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Old December 2nd, 2010 #21
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jewsign The Revenge of the Neanderthals

Sorry for the bad news guys but they are still around….





With the permission of the publisher.
From: http://www.barnesreview.info/are-the...5e&cPath=22_52

Table of Content and Lead Article:

REVENGE OF THE NEANDERTHAL 5

BY WILLIS A. CARTO

The truth about the Neanderthal is a historical web that is finally being untangled. . . .

A SAD HISTORY OF EXPULSION 6

The Jewish people have been banished from a vast array of civilized nations at one time or another. . . .

ISRAELI SAYS: “WE WERE INVENTED” 11

An eminent Israeli historian says the perceived origin of the Jewish people is anything but true. . . .

‘MY ANCESTORS WERE NEANDERTHALS’ 14

Jewish scholar Stan Gooch has written extensively on the Neanderthal origins of today’s people known as “the Jews.”

JESUS SPOKE A GENTILE LANGUAGE 15

Christ’s ethnic antecedents are not necessarily Hebrews.

RELIGIOUS FOUNDATIONS OF A PEOPLE 16

The Jewish religion has played a major part in shaping the Jewish people. . . .

THE BIG SECRET 18

The leading force behind anti-Catholic bigotry in America was the first Jewish member of Congress. . . .

A CELEBRATION OF GENOCIDE 20

Few people realize that one of Judaism’s foremost holidays celebrates the slaughter of 75,000 human beings. . . .

TARGET: JESUS 22

The foremost Jewish religious teachings preach—even demand—hatred of Jesus Christ. . . .

DESTROYING CHRISTIAN SHRINES 23

There’s an ugly history of Jewish attempts to wipe out the vestiges of Christianity in the Holy Land. . . .

WILL ISRAEL DESTROY THE WORLD? 24

The Jewish people consider Israel’s atomic weapon to be “holy.” But will it end up destroying mankind? . . .

ANCIENT PREJUDICES STILL REIGN 26

The goyim—then as now—were/are held in contempt. . . .

THE STORY OF THE KHAZARS 30

Michael Bradley, a Jewish scholar, opened up a Pandora’s Box with his inquiries into the history of Western man.

PROTOCOLS NOT A ‘FORGERY’ 32

Despite all the misinformation, there’s a solid history of the Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion and from whence they came. . . .

A NOT-SO-HOLY LAND 33

Contemporary data indicates that racism and discrimination and hatred of the worst sort runs rampant in Israel. . . .

TEACHING RELIGIOUS HATRED 35

Although Jewish people complain about Christianity and Islam being religions of hatred, a critical examination of Judaism itself is quite revealing. . . .

ANCIENT CONFLICTS STILL RAGING 38

BY MARCUS ELI RAVAGE

A famous Jewish author and philosopher examines the frictions between Jews and non-Jews. . . .

WHOSE ‘UTOPIA’ WILL IT BE? 41

Jewish scholars proclaim a future New World Order in which the Jewish people will reign supreme. Will they?

ZIONISM VERSUS BOLSHEVISM 48

BY WINSTON CHURCHILL

The British statesman saw a struggle on the world stage as a conflict between Jewish Zionism and Jewish Bolshevism.

RUSSIA’S CHRISTIAN MARTYRS 52

BY MARINA MARYNOVA

The royal family of Russia were perhaps the first most prominent victims of Jewish Bolshevism. Here’s the sad story of their brutal murders. . . .

THE GIFT OF THE NEANDERTHAL? 65

BY EUSTACE MULLINS

Is the nuclear hell-bomb Neanderthal’s legacy to mankind?

WHO REIGNS SUPREME? 67

Have the heirs to the Neanderthal finally achieved global supremacy? . . .



The Controversial Story Of The Khazars

THE WORK OF MICHAEL BRADLEY

The seldom-heard-of group of people known as the Khazars were hardly ever the subject of discussion outside scholarly circles—particularly those interested in Jewish history—until the release in 1976 of a controversial book entitled The Thirteenth Tribe by Jewish philosopher and social critic Arthur Koestler (1905-1983).

However, independent of Koestler (whose work he had never before known), a Canadian- based writer of Jewish origins, Michael Bradley, released his own 1978 work, The Iceman Inheritance, followed up by its sequel, Chosen People From the Caucusus, in which (combined together) he put forth his thesis that the modern day people known as the Jews were descendants from the Khazars and that, indeed, the Khazars could trace their origins back to the Neanderthals.

Bradley’s website at michaelbradley.info describes Bradley’s findings in part: In Chosen People from the Caucasus, Bradley focuses on the two separate groups of people who came from the Caucasus Mountains of the Middle East: the Biblical Hebrews who emerged from the southern Caucasus between 3000-2000 BC to invade Palestine, and the northern Caucasus “Khazars” who were converted to Judaism about 740A.D.

The Khazars were pushed into Central and Eastern Europe by Mongol invasions, and their descendants comprise the vast majority of modern Jewry [a point that some historians, both Jewish and non-Jewish have quibbled over, some suggesting that only a small number of both peoples, ironically, are considered to be “Jews”—although they have no direct historical or genetic connections with each other—except as they shared a Neanderthal origin in the Caucasus Mountains in the far distant and ancient pre-Judaic past.

Bradley contends that people and cultures emerging from the Caucasus Mountains (a known refuge of late lingering Neanderthal populations) in proto-historical and historical times would have remained highly intelligent, highly aggressive and psychosexually maladapted (promoting a high level of in-group cohesion). These traits, Bradley contends, explain the survival of Biblical Hebrews against all odds and also the inordinate social influence of modern Western Jews.

Bradley contends that there is no mystique of “the chosen people.” “Monotheism”— a purely male and abstract Godhead— is merely a result of Neanderthal glacial physical and mental adaptations or “maladaptations.” Proven Neanderthal in-group cohesion and extreme aggression together resulted in a fiercely parochial “chosen people” perspective. The cultural fusion of the two separate streams of “Jews” has, since the 16th century, played an important role in the evolution of Western Civilization and thus in the molding of the entire world’s present cultural profile.

Bradley contends that a uniquely high level of lingering Neanderthal aggression, perpetuated by ethnic prohibitions against outside marriage, has been responsible for the major role played by those calling themselves Jews in the discovery and conquest of the Americas, the transatlantic trade in Black Africans as slaves and cultural colonization of non-Whites by the West. It has been a role too often distorted and disguised by loud lamentations of “anti-Semitism.”

Bradley writes further of his own research and the subsequent controversy that erupted when many media outlets (and Jewish sources) which had previously hailed his writing on the topic of the Neanderthals came to realize that his work pointed toward Neanderthal origins for the Jewish people:

The “Jewish” Ashkenazim had come from a region of known late-lingering Neanderthals, the Caucasus Mountains and the neighboring Russian steppes. Some typically “Jewish” physical traits were very obviously vestigial Neanderthal ones – generally a short stature and a plump physique, many very short wide-hipped and big- breasted women, extremely hairy men and a tendency toward beetling brows and large beaky “hooked” noses in both genders. Many Ashkenazim have crinkly-curly head hair tending toward dark reddish brown or mahogany in color.

Among Ashkenazi “Jews” there is also a genetic tendency toward beaky
faces, not only just noses, and big mouths (in more ways than one) that “wrap around” the lower face. Barbara Streisand and Julia Roberts provide two lovely and very well known examples of how attractive this genetic trait can be. But these are not “Semitic” physical traits. They are Neanderthal physical characteristics. And maybe some Neanderthal emotional and behavioral traits persisted among the Ashkenazim along with the physical ones.

Their “chosen people” pretension is a typical Neanderthal in-group obsession that is actually a genetic racist predisposition against all other humans. It is a genetically determined “us against them” mentality. Their higher level of known Neanderthal aggression against outsiders is responsible for their disproportional social influence wherever they have settled in the West. . . . The Ashkenazi Jews, as a group, exhibit lingering Neanderthal traits most strongly among living Caucasians because of Jewish prohibitions against marriage with outsiders. Their Neanderthal genes have been kept “all in the family”, as it were. These Neanderthal genes were not diluted by intermarriage nearly as much as with most other Caucasians.

. . . This Russian steppe origin of today’s Ashkenazi “Jews” was not just a “theory” based on squibs by medieval Christian, Moslem and Jewish chroniclers. It was solid and objective historical reality based on linguistics and hard archaeological artifacts.

And, with The Iceman Inheritance, my unforgivable crime had been to add very persuasive anthropological data to all the other evidence. And this “data” was also something that anyone could actually see by simply taking a close look at many North American “Jews.”

According to Bradley, the Neanderthal heritage of modern- day Jewish people explains much about their ongoing problems with not only the native people of Palestine but with other people on the planet. He writes:

This unfortunate combination of high aggression combined with a tendency toward emotional instability and hysteria when they feel nervous or threatened . . . which is all the time when they are not in absolute control. And they are arrogant, but uneasy, even then. An ethnic symptom of this emotional instability is the Jewish tendency toward hypochondria. Even they cannot (yet) control death. This unfortunate combination of high aggression combined with a tendency toward hysteria and emotional instability has proved to be a dangerous and tragic situation over the course of Western history. Their aggression encourages continual Jewish attempts to control societies, while the emotional instability makes it difficult for most Jews to distinguish reasonably between justified social criticism by their non- Jewish neighbors and attacks.

Insensitive even to objective concerns about inordinate Jewish influence in societies, and reacting with hysterical aggression to any such supposed “attack” on their behavior and pleas from non-Jews to limit it, Jews have
always provoked violence against themselves. And then they, with much emotional satisfaction, feel victimized and attribute the situation to innate “anti-Semitism” among their neighbors.

On his website, in an essay entitled “A frightening publication history of Jewish media suppression” (from which the above is adapted), Bradley explores the amazing negative reaction against his writings and the amazing and eye-opening efforts to suppress his work and condemn his research.

For more about his work (and the availability of his books on the origins of the Neanderthals, as well as other topics), refer to Bradley’s website at michaelbradley.info or write him: Michael Bradley, PO Box 97035, Toronto, Canada M6R 3LO or email him at [email protected] yahoo.com. For a copy of Thirteenth Tribe (softcover, 255 pages, #61, $17 plus $5 S&H) contact TBR BOOK CLUB, P.O. Box 15877, Washington, D.C. 20003. Call 1-877-773-9077 toll free to charge.
 
Old December 27th, 2010 #22
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Fossilized food stuck in Neandertal teeth indicates plant-rich diet

http://www.scientificamerican.com/bl...tal-2010-12-27
 
Old January 18th, 2011 #23
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Neanderthal faces were not adapted to cold

New research into Neanderthal skulls suggests that facial features believed for over a century to be adaptations to extreme cold are unlikely to have evolved in response to glacial periods after all.

http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-01-...thal-cold.html
 
Old August 13th, 2013 #24
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Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe



New finds demonstrate: Neandertals were the first in Europe to make standardized and specialized bone tools—which are still in use today.

Two research teams from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and the University of Leiden in the Netherlands have jointly reported the discovery of Neandertal bone tools coming from their excavations at two neighboring Paleolithic sites in southwest France.

The tools are unlike any others previously found in Neandertal sites, but they are similar to a tool type well known from later modern human sites and still in use today by high-end leather workers.

This tool, called a lissoir or smoother, is shaped from deer ribs and has a polished tip that, when pushed against a hide, creates softer, burnished and more water resistant leather. The bone tool is still used today by leather workers some 50 thousand years after the Neandertals and the first anatomically modern humans in Europe.

Neandertals made the first specialized bone tools in Europe
 
Old October 11th, 2013 #25
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- bump -

This will become increasingly relevant as an image of the power structure develops.
 
Old April 3rd, 2014 #26
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http://t.co/zV0jdv1vcE

Europeans have three times more Neanderthal genes for lipid catabolism than Asians or Africans
Date:
April 2, 2014
Source:
Max-Planck-Gesellschaft
Summary:
Contemporary Europeans have as many as three times more Neanderthal variants in genes involved in lipid catabolism than Asians and Africans. Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in modern humans. These shared regions are unevenly distributed across the genome and some regions are particularly enriched with Neanderthal variants.
 
Old April 18th, 2014 #27
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Brutish and short? DNA 'switch' sheds light on Neanderthals

April 17, 2014

By Sharon Begley

NEW YORK (Reuters) - How can creatures as different in body and mind as present-day humans and their extinct Neanderthal cousins be 99.84 percent identical genetically?

Four years after scientists discovered that the two species' genomes differ by a fraction of a percent, geneticists said on Thursday they have an explanation: the cellular equivalent of "on"/"off" switches that determine whether DNA is activated or not.

Hundreds of Neanderthals' genes were turned off while the identical genes in today's humans are turned on, the international team announced in a paper published online in Science. They also found that hundreds of other genes were turned on in Neanderthals, but are off in people living today.

Among the hundreds: genes that control the shape of limbs and the function of the brain, traits where modern humans and Neanderthals differ most.

"People are fundamentally interested in what makes us human, in what makes us different from Neanderthals," said Sarah Tishkoff, an expert in human evolution at the University of Pennsylvania, who was not involved in the new study. Discovering the differences in gene activation is "an amazing technical feat," she said, and goes a long way to answering that riddle.

The discovery also underlines the power of those on/off patterns. Together, they add up to what is called the human epigenome, to distinguish it from the human genome. The genome is the sequence of 3 billion molecules that constitute all of a person's DNA while the epigenome is which bits of DNA are turned on or off even as the molecular sequence remains unchanged.

In the last few years, research on the epigenome has shed light on how gene silencing leads to cancer, for instance, and how identical twins with identical DNA sequences can be very different. The epigenome exerts such powerful effects that it is often called the "second genetic code."

Now it has offered clues to what makes modern humans distinct.

GENES FOR STRONGER LIMBS

For the new study, geneticists led by Liram Carmel of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem started with DNA from limb bones: those of a living person, a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, an extinct human that lived in Eurasia during the Stone Age and whose remains - a pinkie bone and a tooth, from a cave in Siberia - were not discovered until 2010.

Geneticist David Gokhman and others on the Israeli team then examined the DNA's on/off patterns, identifying about 2,200 regions that were activated in today's humans, but silenced in either or both extinct species, or vice versa. When a gene is silenced, it does not produce the trait it otherwise would.

Chief among the epigenetic differences: a cluster of five genes called HOXD, which influences the shape and size of limbs, including arms and hands. It was largely silenced in both ancient species, the scientists found.

That may explain anatomical differences between archaic and present-day humans, including Neanderthals' shorter legs and arms, bowleggedness, large hands and fingers, and curved arm bones.

Calling the work "pioneering," and "a remarkable breakthrough," paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London said in an interview that the HOXD gene finding "may help to explain how these ancient humans were able to build stronger bodies, better adapted to the physical rigors of Stone Age life."

One caveat about the research is that one person's epigenome can vary markedly from another's due to diet, environment and other factors. It is therefore impossible to know whether the on/off patterns found in Neanderthal genes are typical of the species overall or peculiar to the individual studied.

Other DNA with big differences in on/off patterns between the extinct and present-day humans is associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. More of the Neanderthal versions were silenced.

In an interview, Carmel speculated that any given gene might "do many things in the brain." When dozens of brain-related genes became more active in today's humans, that somehow produced the harmful side effect of neurological illness.

But the main effect might have been the astonishing leap in brain development that most distinguishes modern Homo sapiens from our extinct cousins.

http://news.yahoo.com/brutish-short-...180250378.html
 
Old April 22nd, 2014 #28
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Neanderthals Had Shallow Gene Pool, Study Says


A girl goes nose-to-nose with a Neanderthal statue in Germany. Ancient DNA research is increasingly revealing …

Neanderthals were remarkably less genetically diverse than modern humans, with Neanderthal populations typically smaller and more isolated, researchers say.

Although Neanderthals underwent more genetic changes involving their skeletons, they had fewer such changes in behavior and pigmentation, scientists added.

Modern humans are the only humans alive today, but Earth was once home to a variety of other human lineages. The Neanderthals were once the closest relatives of modern humans, with the common ancestors of modern humans and Neanderthals divergingbetween 550,000 and 765,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans later interbred — nowadays, about 1.5 to 2.1 percent of DNA of people outside Africa is Neanderthal in origin. [See Photos of Our Closest Human Ancestor]

Researchers first sequenced the Neanderthal genome in 2010. "One of the next goals was obviously to begin to explore the variation among Neanderthals," said study author Svante Pääbo, an evolutionary geneticist at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.

Pääbo and his colleagues analyzed three Neanderthal genomes. One came from a 49,000-year-old specimen from Spain; another from a 44,000-year-old specimen from Croatia; and one from a Siberian specimen at least 50,000 years old.

"For the first time we begin to get a detailed picture of genetic variation among Neanderthals," Pääbo told Live Science.

The scientists found that Neanderthals "had even less variation than present-day humans, who are already known to have less than chimpanzees and most other apes," Pääbo said. "The amount of genetic diversity in the Neanderthals was about a quarter of that in Africans today, and about a third of that in Europeans or Asians."

To pinpoint why Neanderthals might have been less genetically diverse, the researchers focused on 17,367 genes that encoded instructions for generating proteins. They concentrated on mutations that changed what amino acids went into those proteins. Such mutations have a good chance of altering the structure or function of those proteins.

Although mutations that change the amino acid makeup of proteins can have benefits, more often than not, they have detrimental effects. One should expectnatural selection to weed out these mutations over time, as anyone bearing them is probably less fit and thus not as likely to survive to reproduce. However, such mutations can accumulate in small, isolated populations, since those groups have fewer normal versions of those genes in their gene pools to replace any mutant genes.

The investigators found Neanderthals carried more copies of mutations that would alter the amino acid makeup of proteins than modern humans possess. This suggests that Neanderthal populations across Eurasia were likely small and isolated.

"Neanderthals seem to have been few in numbers either over a long time or for some periods," Pääbo said. "There is also an indication that they have been subdivided in populations that had little contact with each other."

The fact that Neanderthals carried more copies of potentially detrimental mutations did not necessarily contribute to their extinction, said lead study author Sergi Castellano, at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. "No claim should be made that this is related to their extinction," Castellano told Live Science.

The researchers also found skeleton genes changed more than expected within the Neanderthal lineage.

"For example, genes that affect the curvature of the spine have changed in Neanderthals," Pääbo said. "This fits with how their skeletons have changed quite drastically during their evolution."

On the other hand, genes involved with pigmentation and behavior changed more in the modern human lineage.

"We do not yet know if and how these very mutations affect behavior," Pääbo said. "Clearly, it will be interesting to study more Neanderthals so that one can begin to reconstruct their history in more detail."

The scientists detailed their findings online today (April 21) in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Follow us @livescience, Facebook & Google+. Original article on Live Science.

http://news.yahoo.com/neanderthals-h...194351499.html

Last edited by Alex Linder; April 22nd, 2014 at 12:03 PM.
 
Old April 23rd, 2014 #29
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Have you been living under a rock?

http://www.koanicsoul.com/blog/readi...s-to-the-soul/
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Old May 10th, 2014 #30
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Neanderthals not as stupid as humans like to think

The widely-held idea that Neanderthals were wiped out because they were intellectually inferior is not supported by scientific evidence, say experts.

The species — which is closely related to humans and lived between 350,000-40,000 years ago — might instead have disappeared because they interbred with humans, Paola Villa and Wil Roebroeks claim in a paper published yesterday.

Around 1.5%-2.1% of genomes of people outside of Africa are made up of Neanderthal inheritance. It is likely that the two groups encountered each around 50,000 years ago, in Europe and the Middle East.

The common perception that Neanderthals were wiped out by superior humans comes from the idea that modern humans developed cultural traditions and better intellects that helped them expand, as seen in archaeological finds. But recent finds show that there is less difference in what humans and Neanderthals left behind, the researchers say.

“Modern humans are usually seen as superior in a wide range of domains, including weaponry and subsistence strategies, which would have led to the demise of Neanderthals,” the researchers said. “This systematic review of the archaeological records of Neandertals and their modern human contemporaries finds no support for such interpretations.”

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/sc...k-9310932.html
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Old May 10th, 2014 #31
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Academics only guess what the Neanderthals looked like.....
IMO the Neanderthals were ape looking and they raped their way into the Cro Magnun family tree....
This video is closer to the real truth IMO

also info here>>>> http://www.themandus.org


Last edited by grail; May 10th, 2014 at 02:40 PM.
 
Old May 14th, 2014 #32
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I find this "science" ridiculously speculative.
 
Old May 15th, 2014 #33
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Meg Kafka View Post
I find this "science" ridiculously speculative.


The main stream academic science is also speculative....

WHY would the Cro Magnuns wipe out the Neanderthals unless they were a threat and ugly as all get out....?...Think about it ....

The idea of the "Boogyman" in our myths is the Neanderthal....IMHO.
 
Old October 9th, 2014 #34
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200,000-year-old Neanderthal human remains found in Normandy

French archaeologists have discovered some 200,000-year-old Neanderthal human remains in Normandy in an extremely rare discovery in northwestern Europe.

The three long Neanderthal bones - from the same left upper limb - found in September at Tourville-la-Rivière in Normandy and exhibited on Thursday in Paris are human fossils which are extremely rare in this part of Europe.

The remains are attributable to the Neanderthal lineage - in the Middle Pleistocene era - and are aged between 236,000 and 183,000 years.

The open-air site of Tourville-la-Rivière was discovered in 1967 as a sand and gravel quarry and has since been monitored by archaeologists.

It is the second time such remains have been found in France. In the 1980s two partial crania from this period were excavated from Biache-Saint-Vaast in northern France.

All known human fossils from this period have been found from ten sites in either Germany or England.

The three bones most probably belong to an adult or an older adolescent but archaeologists said they were unable to tell if it's a male or female remain.

The archaeological discovery was published on Thursday on the American sciences review Plos One.

http://www.english.rfi.fr/visiting-f...ound-normandy?
 
Old April 3rd, 2015 #35
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Altamura Man yields oldest Neanderthal DNA sample

by Bob Yirka r

(Phys.org)—A team of researchers working in Italy has confirmed that Altamura Man was a Neanderthal and dating of pieces of calcite which were on the remains has revealed that the bones are 128,000 to 187,000 years old. In their paper published in the Journal of Human Evolution, the team describes how they extracted a small bone sample and examined it and what they found by doing so.

Altamura Man was discovered in a cave in southern Italy in 1993 by cave explorers. The finding was reported to researchers at the University of Bari. The remains were embedded in rock and were covered in a thick layer of calcite (they lie in a karst borehole rich in limestone amid running water.) It was thought that excavating the remains would cause irreparable damage and thus, they have remained in situ for over twenty years, leaving researchers to rely on casual observation for their studies. For that reason, there was some debate initially about morphology and age. Subsequent study led to a consensus that the remains (only the head and part of a shoulder are visible) were that of an archaic Neanderthal, of a Homo genus believed to have been widespread in Europe 200,000 to 40,000 years ago.

The researchers with the current project began their work six years ago—a tiny part of shoulder bone (and stalactite fragments) was extracted and brought back to the lab for study. Analysis by Uranium-thorium dating revealed that the calcite was formed 172,000 to 130,000 years ago—during the penultimate quaternary glaciations period. The team also reports that samples of DNA have also been retrieved from the sample, and because of the age, represent the oldest such samples ever recovered from Neanderthal remains.

It is believed that Altamura Man wound up in such a peculiar spot after falling in a well and getting stuck—it is assumed he starved to death, or died from lack of water intake. The researchers next plan to test the DNA sample to see if it can be sequenced—if so, they are hopeful it might reveal new details about the evolution of hominids in general and perhaps more about the early history of the Neanderthal.

In 1993, a fossil hominin skeleton was discovered in the karst caves of Lamalunga, near Altamura, in southern Italy. Despite the fact that this specimen represents one of the most extraordinary hominin specimens ever found in Europe, for the last two decades our knowledge of it has been based purely on the documented on-site observations. Recently, the retrieval from the cave of a fragment of bone (part of the right scapula) allowed the first dating of the individual, the quantitative analysis of a diagnostic morphological feature, and a preliminary paleogenetic characterization of this hominin skeleton from Altamura. Overall, the results concur in indicating that it belongs to the hypodigm of Homo neanderthalensis, with some phenetic peculiarities that appear consistent with a chronology ranging from 172 ± 15 ka to 130.1 ± 1.9 ka. Thus, the skeleton from Altamura represents the most ancient Neanderthal from which endogenous DNA has ever been extracted.

http://phys.org/news/2015-04-altamur...rthal-dna.html
 
Old June 24th, 2015 #36
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http://www.irishexaminer.com/world/n...ry-338751.html Neanderthal DNA discovery
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Wednesday, June 24, 2015
By John von Radowitz

DNA from a Romanian who lived in a prehistoric “dark age”, when early modern humans and Neanderthals were neighbours, is strong evidence that the two groups interbred in Europe.

It had been thought that early humans leaving Africa mixed with Neanderthals in the Middle East 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, before migrating to Europe and Asia.

The new evidence shows that early-modern humans, and their sub-species cousins, interbred more recently, during the 5,000 years they co-existed in Eurasia, before Neanderthals became extinct.

The owner of the jawbone from which the DNA was extracted had a Neanderthal in his family tree as recently as four to six generations back, the research shows.
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Nine percent of his genome, or genetic code, may have been Neanderthal in origin. The Neanderthal contribution to the genomes of non-African people living today is between 1% and 3%.

Professor Svante Paabo, from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Germany, said: “It is such a lucky and unexpected thing to get DNA from a person who was so closely related to a Neanderthal. I could hardly believe it, when we first saw the results.”

Neanderthals had been living in Europe for 200,000 years when the first, early-modern humans left Africa to colonise Europe and Asia.

The two groups were different in appearance — Neanderthals were shorter and stockier, with prominent brow ridges — but genetically close for interbreeding.

Neanderthals died out 40,000 years ago. Perhaps they were unable to compete with more sophisticated, modern humans for resources, such as food and shelter. They may also have been ‘assimilated’ through interbreeding.

Archaeological evidence, including changes in tool-making technology, burial rituals and body ornaments, indicates cultural exchange between the two groups when they co-existed in Europe. But because of a lack of skeletons, scientists know little about these people’s physical and genetic make-ups.

The rare jawbone was unearthed from the Pestera cu Oase (“cave with bones”), in the Carpathian Mountains of south-west Romania, in 2002. Radiocarbon dating determined it was between 37,000 and 42,000 years old, and the presence of both X and Y sex chromosomes confirmed it was male.

Results of the genetic analysis appear in the latest online edition of the journal, Nature.

Co-author, Dr David Reich, from Harvard Medical School, in the US, said: “The sample is more closely related to Neanderthals than any other modern human we’ve ever looked at before. We estimate that 6% to 9% of its genome is from Neanderthals. ”
 
Old June 24th, 2015 #37
Theodore
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What I find intriguing is the five Homo erectus skulls found in Georgia. The remains at Dmanisi are thought to be early forms of Homo erectus, the first of our relatives to have body proportions like a modern human.

Implications of the discovery have caused scientists in the field to draw breath. Over decades excavating sites in Africa, researchers have named half a dozen different species of early human ancestor, but most, if not all, are on shaky ground.

One skull discovered in Dmanisi belonged to an adult male. The dimensions were so strange that one scientist at the site joked that they should leave it in the ground.

 
Old August 2nd, 2015 #38
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These articles are excellent; http://atala.fr/chapter-1/
 
Old September 5th, 2017 #39
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New dating of Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave finds them older than thought


An international team of researchers has conducted a new test of Neanderthal remains found at Vindija Cave in Croatia and found them to be older than previous studies indicated. In their paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the team describes their dating technique and the possible implications of their findings.

https://phys.org/news/2017-09-dating...ave-older.html
 
Old September 18th, 2017 #40
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If anyone interested,
DNA from Neanderthals is very close to modern African DNA. Africa is also considered as the first continent with living people.
 
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