|March 26th, 2008||#1|
The Corruption of Academic Anthropology: Lying That Race Does Not Exist
[Ford Foundation, a source of more evil than Satan, funds a traveling ministrel show headed by a black parakeet at Riverside who tweets that race does not exist, it's all in your head.]
The exhibition RACE: Are we so different? brings together the everyday experience of living with race, its history as an idea, the role of science in that history, and the findings of contemporary science that are challenging its foundations.
Interactive exhibit components, historical artifacts, iconic objects, compelling photographs, multimedia presentations, and attractive graphic displays offer visitors to RACE an eye-opening look at its important subject matter.
Developed by the American Anthropological Association in collaboration with the Science Museum of Minnesota, RACE is the first nationally traveling exhibition to tell the stories of race from the biological, cultural, and historical points of view. Combining these perspectives offers an unprecedented look at race and racism in the United States.
ABOUT THE PROJECT
Yolanda Moses, Ph.D. Chair, Understanding Race and Human Variation
Vice Provost for Diversity and Conflict Resolution and Professor of Anthropology, University of California – Riverside, Riverside, CA
Ford Foundation Awards $450,000 to RACE Project
Yolanda Moses co-chairs advisory board that will develop a smaller version of the original traveling museum exhibit.
(March 25, 2008)
RIVERSIDE, Calif. - The Ford Foundation has awarded a $450,000 grant to the American Anthropological Association’s “RACE: Are We So Different?” project, a traveling museum exhibit for which anthropology professor Yolanda Moses is a curator.
The new grant will fund the development of a smaller version of the exhibit, intended for display in smaller venues, and a companion book. The Ford Foundation previously contributed $1 million to help create the $4 million exhibit.
“RACE: Are We So Different?” also will receive the American Association of Museums 2008 Excellence in Exhibition award at the association’s annual conference in Denver in April.
The new Ford Foundation grant will enable development of an exhibit which can circulate to smaller museum spaces, civic buildings and universities.
Moses, who was president of the American Anthropological Association when discussions about the RACE project began in the late 1990s, will co-chair the smaller exhibit’s advisory group and serve as co-editor of the companion book.
“America is ready to have a substantive conversation about race, as witnessed by the dialog around Barack Obama’s recent speech on race,” said Moses, who also is associate vice chancellor for diversity and excellence and vice provost, conflict resolution. “This project will provide educational information on this most important topic to more Americans than ever.”
The original RACE project, a 5,000-square-foot exhibit, opened at the Science Museum of Minnesota in January 2007. Since then, more than one million people have explored the exhibit and related Web site. The interactive exhibit, which is booked at museums around the country through 2012, addresses race and racism from the viewpoints of science, history and lived experience.
Moses also has been named to the editorial board of the new journal Sustainability: The Journal of Record, which aims to be the conduit for universities, business communities, foundations, government agencies and environmental leaders to share information and foster collaboration.
Last edited by Alex Linder; March 26th, 2008 at 03:47 AM.
|May 4th, 2008||#3|
Join Date: Mar 2007
Negroes Classfied As Humans?
Lutheran Social Services actively promotes and sponsors bringing non-Whites to the USA and settling them in White areas - ruining those areas in the name of God.
The problem with Lutheran Social Services is that it has swallowed a fundamental anthropological mistake.
The mistake that Negroes are humans.
It's the same mistake that the rest of the country has swallowed. Our culture is mixing s**t and ice cream on the theory that they're both food.
Who made this mistake originally? There was always a bit of confusion over Negroes. They are anthropoids with the ability to speak and are adept emotional mimics. Rather higher on the scale than the apes who learn sign language, which we're always reading and hearing about ("I want bananas! That's not fair! I miss Koko!"). But it's the same scale. The main difference is the shape of the throat and the tongue.
Thomas Jefferson, in his "Notes on the State of Virginia," sums up his thoughts on Negroes after years of slavemastering them, i.e. using them primarily as farm animals. (His dirty cousin Randall probably fornicated with one or two, e.g. Sally H.) He describes them with an almost painful straightforwardness and bewilderment. They stink, he says, but are pretty good at singing and emotional oratory (fiery speeches). They have no deep imagination or intelligence. He concludes that Whites and blacks, if "equally free, cannot live in the same government."
Anthropologists were always a bit confused over Negroes, never flatly stating that they aren't human, but treating them as if they weren't fully human, nevertheless. The Constitution conceded to designate them as four-fifths human - as a sop to the slave states, who wanted to count Negro slaves as human so as to have more representation in the national legislature.
The confusion, and the bewilderment associated with it, was hardened and codified, however - the mistake was enshrined - by jew Franz Boaz, who said there is no such thing as race. Jew Boaz was an anthropologist who perverted anthropology from the physical school (fact-based) into the "cultural" school (bullshit-based). His bullshit line was called "cultural relativism." "Cultural relativism" says Negroes, Whites, whatever are the way they are because they were trained and raised that way. Given different training and raising, they could be anything. A Negro could be a scientist with a clipboard. A Jew could be a respected White. Black, red, Asian, brown could be "Americans" or "world citizens" in a proposition polity. Kumbayah!
But leopards cannot change their spots. Physical anthropology was science, but "cultural anthropology" was just jewish bullshit. (Jews live by bullshit. They love "propositions," "cultural heuristics," "concepts," and yak.)
The physical anthropology, as well as the related empirical discipline of IQ testing, has shown us time and again than Negroes are far different than Whites. Their brains are different. (Rushton is just the tip of the iceberg. The Bell Curve is just the tip of that tip.)
Jews insisted - from every High, Middle, and Low Culture megaphone - and in the halls of every legislature - that Negroes and Whites were equally human. They jerked every tear they could for 100 years, "proving" to emotional old ladies and unworldly teens that ol' Boo was ignorant and criminal only because the White Man kept him down during 400 years of slavery. (Didn't other Negroes also "keep" Negroes down - during 4,000 years of slavery? Not according to jew-produced entertainment and laws.)
So the races were mixed in America and elsewhere. They were "integrated." With the result that America has fallen apart since the 1960s.
Cities: destroyed because of Negroes and because of Whites fleeing them after suffering continual assault, robbery, and property destruction.
Crime: violent crime is statistically mostly a Negro problem. Google "The Color of Crime." Negroes = crime.
Education: standards decline every year because of the fanatical attempt to mainstream these non-humans. Just as well mix bonobos into classrooms.
Civility: "nigger normal" America has descended into the anomie and stupidity of a third-world nation. We're the Suweto ghetto with toys and deodorant - and trillions of dollars of debt.
Our nation tried (and is still trying, with a government gun to its head and hymns in its ears!) to mix shit and milk. We did not get a "milkshake," we got poison.
Negroes are not humans. For civilization to regain its health, they must be separated from us. For this to happen, we must first recognize (actually, acknowledge) they are not us.
Nothing goes right until we go White. As someone here said not a few times.
Given that jews took advantage of natural confusion and Christian squeamishness to ram Negroes down our throats and into our schools, neighborhoods, and daughters' crotches, and given jews' evolutionary strategy of conquering and replacing the White race thereby - what other failures might be involved? The insanity of religion. Jewsus said we must love everybody as ourselves. Both everybody allegedly "human" and jus' plain everybody, even animals, whom Catholics bless and Whites driven insane by religious ethics legislatively advocate for with "animal rights."
The problem with religion is that it isn't factual. Believers don't believe on facts, but on faith. That attitude clouds the mind, undermines many mental defenses against evolutionary enemies. We laugh - BWA HA! - at the maniac who hears invisible elves whispering advice to him. Yet, we nod respectfully when someone describes his relationship to Jesus and tells us that the Holy Ghost/Christ/his pastor called him to adopt a bunch 65 IQ Somalis and move them into your neighborhood.
The Lutheran Social Service people can thus be explained by
1. Anthropological confusion. Negroes not hard-classified as not-humans.
2. Jews using this confusion to perpetrate the outrage of mixing Negroes with humans.
3. Religion, which teaches non-fact non-think attitudes as guides to life. Creating sheep for shearing by the million.
Solution: get rid of the jew. The jew is driving this insanity. Then get smart, hard-minded White men in charge. And then, sadder but wiser, our race - the greatest, most creative, best race in history, the true human beings - will proceed to our destiny.
[first posted in This Just In]
|December 8th, 2008||#4|
Join Date: Dec 2003
Blog Entries: 3
Gene Weltfish (1902-1980)
Dr. Gene Weltfish, Boasian anthropologist, is known for her studies of Pawnee Indian culture, art theory, and race and prejudice. She is acclaimed for her work detailing Pawnee Indian culture and linguistics, especially for her book The Lost Universe. Weltfish co-authored the United States propaganda pamphlet, "The Races of Mankind", with Ruth Benedict. She was a proponent of race equality. This, at times, along with her Communist affiliations and viewpoints, caused her to face persecution. Although she is admired for many of her viewpoints, much of which are dominant cultural positions today, she was the object of controversy during her era.
Childhood and Adolescence
Regina (Gene) Weltfish was born on August 7, 1902 (Pathe, 1988). She was the oldest daughter of Eve Furman Weltfish and Abraham Weltfish. She was born in her maternal grandparent's house and she lived in the top-floor apartment of the building with her parents and younger sister, Florrie. They lived there until Gene was ten years old. She lived among many relatives, including two grandparents and "seven young aunts and uncles". According to Pathe's biography of Weltfish, Gene "spent a happy childhood" with all these relatives around. Gene's grandmother was the matriarch of the family and she was a "strong and positive influence on those around her". This extended to Gene and she thought of her grandmother as a "protector and friend".
Gene's first language was German. Her grandfather was a jeweler from Vienna and he insisted on hiring a German governess for his first granddaughter, in order to ensure that she learned "the language of the culture". "As a child, Gene spoke both English and German fluently and later learned French".
Gene's father died unexpectedly when she was thirteen, three years after the family had moved out on their own. She decided to recite the Kaddish, a Jewish ceremony traditionally performed by the son of the deceased father, after the advice of her paternal grandmother. The Kaddish is recited during the seven-day bereavement period known as Shivah, and, like certain practices in Judaism, is reserved only for males. Gene's grandmother encouraged her to "follow her heart and break the rules". It is no doubt that her grandmother's encouragement to "break the rules" had its roots in the fact that her own father had secretly educated her in Hebrew.
Her father's death caused many problems for the family. Gene's father died without a will. In 1915, an estate would not automatically go the wife in the event of her husband's death. Instead, it was forced into a trust fund for the family. This caused quite a problem, because the family had to petition a state-appointed lawyer for even the smallest amounts of money. The petition process was "lengthy and cumbersome", thus deterring her family from receiving funds easily. Gene's mother had a degree from a business college, yet she could not earn enough money to make ends meet. These two reasons caused Gene to take a job as a clerical assistant in a public school at age fourteen. She went to school part-time in the evenings and graduated from high school in 1919 (Pathe, 1988).
Weltfish first attended Hunter College, where she majored in journalism, and then she transferred to Barnard College. She worked at "various commercial jobs" until her senior year, saving money until she could attend school full time. Weltfish studied under John Dewey and Franz Boas at Barnard (Pathe, 1988). Boas was the founder of the anthropology department at Barnard and taught there from 1918-1928, after being told he could not teach at Columbia College "because of his radical pacifist views" (Rothschild, 2002). It was during her senior year that she first took one of his classes, introducing her to anthropology. Ruth E. Pathe, biographer of Weltfish, calls Boas "the most influential force in shaping her ideology- and indeed, her life" (1988, p. 373). His belief in the "inherent equality of all peoples" definitely shaped her work as an anthropologist and as a human being (Rothschild, 2002). During this same year, Gene met Alexander Lesser, another student of Boas. They "eventually married," and then divorced fifteen years later (Pathe, 1988, p. 373).
In 1925, Gene Weltfish graduated from Barnard and "enrolled in the graduate program in anthropology at Columbia University". Her dissertation, entitled "The Interrelationship of Technique and Design in North America", examined the existing theory that design elements of North American Indian baskets were modified by the techniques of basket weaving. Weltfish talked to many different tribes in order to understand the origin of the "visual motifs" of Native American designs. Weltfish concluded that "the artist's concept, rather than the weaving technique, determined the design" of the basket. She completed her thesis in 1929, yet could not receive her degree officially until 1950. It would have cost Weltfish $4000 to publish her dissertation, which she could not afford. When Columbia changed its policy and began accepting less expensive mimeographed theses in 1950, Weltfish finally published "The Interrelationship of Technique and Design in North America".
1928-1939: Pawnee Research and the Beginning of a Family
In summer 1928, Weltfish and Lesser went to Oklahoma because Boas suggested it. Weltfish started her linguistic fieldwork with the Pawnee Indian and Lesser studied kinship patterns among the Sioux. Dr. Weltfish focused on the monolingual people in the group. She was able to understand them by transcribing their stories, then having her interpreter, Henry Chapman, translate from Pawnee to English. Slowly, she began to recognize dialects and also the "underpinnings of the language" (Pathe, 1988, p. 373-4).
Dr. Weltfish returned to Columbia for the 1928-29 school year, and she went back to study the Pawnee during the summer of 1929. In 1930, she received a Social Science Research Fellowship, allowing her to live with the Pawnee for a year. According to Pathe, she loved it and she "fit easily into their lifestyle" (1988, p. 374). Dr. Weltfish learned the art of basket weaving, an art done completely by women, and she documented the process of her teachers' hands as they wove baskets. She also knew particularly the women on a personal level, sharing "the daily problems and events of their lives". Dr. Weltfish also visited the Cochitit, the Rio Grande Pueblos, the Hopi, the San Carlos Apache, the Jicarilla, and the Mescalero, studying their basket weaving, pottery making and the process of making a tobacco pipe- "an art of the men of the tribe". This work resulted in various papers and "organized exhibitions of Indian crafts" at places such as the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, the Field Museum of Chicago, and the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.
Dr. Weltfish gave birth to her daughter, Ann, in 1931. She chose not to lessen her workload, and so she continued to travel and research, often with Ann in tow. Ann was educated from early on about subjects of anthropological and archeological study like Native Americans, Eskimos, and dinosaurs. Ann was brought with Dr. Weltfish when she returned to the Pawnee to study "social relations and surviving customs and traditions" in 1935. That summer's work, undertaken with Mark Evarts, "a Pawnee who had become a 'major resource and ally'", gave Weltfish information that helped to form a reconstruction of the seasonal year of 1867. In 1965, she published the resulting book, The Lost Universe, after years of checking her accounts with existing material, archaeological information and eyewitness accounts from that time (Weltfish, 1965). It is a book that distinguished Weltfish, and it remains the authoritative ethnography of the Pawnee even today (Pathe, 1988).
This time period resulted in two others written works. The first was "Composition of the Caddoan Linguistic Stock", which she co-authored with her husband. It showed the "interrelationships of the dialects, thereby creating a classic introduction to the Caddoan language for linguistic scholars who followed in their footsteps". The second was Caddoan Texts, which consisted of forty folktales presented both in the Caddoan language and in English (Pathe, 1988).
Teaching at Columbia While Helping with the War Effort
In 1935, Dr. Gene Weltfish was invited by Boas to teach in the graduate anthropology program at Columbia University. She taught both traditional and non-traditional classes, including subjects such as linguistics, archaeology, and "invention and technology in human culture". She also taught one of the first classes in the country on race problems. Weltfish also helped developed Columbia's School of General Studies, which developed new classes at the suggestion of five or more students. Ruth E. Pathe states that Weltfish was "one of those few" that was excellent in both research and teaching. Dr. Weltfish developed "a following of students" due to her caliber of teaching.
The 1940s were a period of rapid change for Weltfish and the world at large. Dr. Weltfish and her husband divorced in 1940, and she became a single parent. She worked hard to convey the ideas of race equality to the public, including publishing the pamphlet "The Races of Mankind" with Ruth Benedict. Dr. Weltfish was called to testify twice to government committees about her involvement in Communist activities and her Communist beliefs. She was the target of controversy on a number of occasions (Pathe, 1988).
The change in Weltfish's life was a reflection of world change, first as a reaction to Hitler's rise to power. During the 1940s, the United States had entered World War II. Weltfish's mentor, Franz Boas, traveled extensively throughout the United States and the world, and he lectured on race and human biology. He was refuting Hitler's ideas. Weltfish wrote about this period, stating:
"During the first four years of my graduate training at Columbia, Hitler rose to power in Germany, bolstering his heinous operations with racist theories developed from distorted anthropology. The books of Franz Boas' were burned in Germany. In 1942, after [Boas'] death, Ruth Benedict, my senior colleague in the Anthropology Department, and I felt that we should carry the banner on the race question. In 1943, Ruth Benedict and I collaborated on a pamphlet, "The Races of Mankind," published by the Public Affairs Committee. The pamphlet was originally written at the request of the U.S.O. for distribution to the men in the armed forces who had to fight side by side with allies such as the Huks in the Philippines and the Solomon Islanders. ÷ "The Races of Mankind" was used, not only for orientation by the army, but in the de-Nazification program in Germany after the war." (Weltfish in Pathe, 1988, p. 375)
"The Races of Mankind" disputed such Nazi ideas that there are Jewish or Aryan races, that superior character is inborn, and that intelligence stems from race (Benedict and Weltfish, 1943). The pamphlet talks about the similarities of all humans and that all races come from different balances of melanin and carotene. It states that blood type, height, and head shape are similar in each cultural group. Each "race" has the same blood types, a range of heights of people, and possible variation in head size. The pamphlet also disputes the view that head size determines intelligence. These are commonly held viewpoints today.
Dr. Weltfish worked hard to spread the message of racial equality. Weltfish traveled all over the country, giving as many as 300 presentations in one year (Pathe, 1988). She organized an animated film, comic books and children skits designed to counter racism. Dr. Weltfish also organized a community council to settle disputes between a white and a black New York City neighborhood. She also did scholarly work on racism, completing three pamphlets and two articles during 1943-44, in addition to her research on Native American Indians. Rather than leaving to work in government agencies in Washington, D.C. like her other colleagues, Weltfish stayed at the insistence of government psychologists. Instead, she helped the war effort also by "assisting in orientation training for overseas personnel and working for the Office of Strategic Services (OSS).
Despite its widespread use until then, "The Races of Mankind" was banned from armed forces libraries in 1944. It continued to be translated and read around the world. There was a dispute over whether or not the pamphlet showed northern blacks as smarter than southern whites. Weltfish showed that the section in question actually discussed how economic and educational advantage affects intelligence scores, and that is the cause for differing test scores. This foreshadowed the problems that the United States Government would have with her in the years to follow.
Accusations of Communist Affiliation
Weltfish became more involved in the women's movement after she divorced in 1940. This may not have been the only reason for her involvement, for she had firmly believed in human equality ever since she studied with Boas at Barnard. In 1945, she was elected vice president of the Women's International Democratic Federation, an organization that lobbied for women rights all around the world, for "the improvement of health and welfare of the world's children and for world peace" (Pathe, 1988, p. 376). She later became president of its American affiliate, the Congress of American Women (Shipp, 1980). "Both organizations criticized Harry S. Truman and policies they feared were leading the country toward another war."
In 1946, the Congress of American Women was listed on the roster of subversive organizations. In 1949, the House Committee on Un-American Activities stated that the group was made up of "primarily a hard core of Communist Party members and a circle of close sympathizers". Her publicly declared connection to Communism made many of the Columbia University trustees nervous (McCaughey, 2002).
In June 1952, Dr. Weltfish charged the United States with using chemical weapons in the Korean War. This was the same position as the Soviet Union, thus inferring that she was a Communist. About three months later, she was called to testify before McCarthy's Senate Internal Security Subcommittee. She was questioned about her involvement in the two women's organizations and about "The Races of Mankind", which was now declared subversive material (Pathe, 1988). Weltfish was also asked about her political beliefs. When asked directly if she was a communist, Dr. Weltfish refused to answer, citing the Fifth Amendment (Shipp, 1980). She also stated that "she thought of herself as a good American and acted on issues as her conscience and knowledge dictated" (Pathe, 1988, p. 377).
In February 1953, Columbia University decided not to renew her contract as a lecturer (Shipp, 1980). Grayson Kirk, the new president of Columbia following Dwight Eisenhower, tried to please the Trustees who may have had reservations about his presidency (McCaughey, 2002). Ike did not want him in office, and the Trustees may too have had concerns or simply may have not wanted Eisenhower to leave. The Trustees wanted no Communists or ex-Communists who declined to testify against others in the university. A "substantial portion" of the faculty and most vocal students disagreed with the Trustees' position. Kirk had been given incriminating information about Weltfish's political beliefs from the FBI, conservative columnist George Sokolsky, and New York Congressman Frederick R. Coudert, Jr. This information, along with Dr. Weltfish's accusations of chemical warfare against Korea, her involvement in government declared subversive organizations and her testimony during the McCarthy hearings, put Weltfish in the desired category for removal from Columbia. Kirk, in his attempt to win the Trustees over, decided to go about Weltfish's termination indirectly. He proposed that lecturers who had not been promoted after five years be either promoted or let go (a way of enforcing the recently instituted "up-or-out" rule). After questioning if this rule would apply to Weltfish, the Board of Trustees passed the proposal unanimously. Her department petitioned for Dr. Weltfish's promotion to a tenured rank, but it was not approved, thus ousting her from the university (Pathe, 1988). At the time, the university denied that Weltfish's termination had anything to do with her political views. "When asked thirty years later about pressure from the Trustees to fire Weltfish, he described it as "very great"" (McCaughey, 2002).
1953-1980: Life After Teaching at Columbia University
Weltfish was unable to secure a teaching position for the next nine years (Pathe, 1988). She continued her research as an anthropologist, despite her focus on human rights issues and the personal turmoil that resulted from that. Some of this work resulted in the 1953 book The Origins of Art. It discussed "why art began and how it developed". From 1954-58, Dr. Weltfish traveled back and forth between New York and Lincoln, Nebraska, researching the Pawnee at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln. This allowed her to complete the research needed to support her field notes from the 1930s. A two-year grant that she received in 1958 helped her to complete the manuscript for The Lost Universe. It detailed the everyday life of the Pawnee throughout one seasonal year. She also applied Pawnee ways of thinking and ideals to contemporary problems in industrialized societies. This book was listed by the American Library Association as "one of the most notable books" to be published in 1965. It has been used as required reading for anthropology courses.
Dr. Weltfish started teaching at Fairleigh Dickinson University in Madison, New Jersey in 1961. By 1968, she was a full professor of undergraduate anthropology. Just like at Columbia, she was an involved and dedicated professor. She started an International Club for students and she also was an advisor for the National Model U.N. General Assembly, a mock version of the United Nations that included students from over 1000 United States colleges and universities.
Dr. Weltfish continued to work with the community during this time, initiating various projects including research, programs to get area residents involved in local history and archeology, and projects for the aged. Her attention turned to gerontology as she got older and she established a senior scholars' program at Fairleigh Dickinson and a community center for older people in Madison, New Jersey. Dr. Weltfish also "instrumental" in the beginning of the Gerontological Society of New Jersey and the Grey Panthers in New York City.
Weltfish was forced to retire at age seventy from Fairleigh due to an age limit for professors. She was awarded professor emeritus status. Dr. Weltfish continued to teach for the rest of her life as a part-time faculty member at the graduate department of the New School for Social Research and at the Manhattan School of Music. She was also had a Visiting Professorship at Rutgers University's new Gerontology program.
Dr. Weltfish Weltfish died August 2, 1980, five days before her seventy-ninth birthday. Her daughter, Ann Margetson, and two grandchildren survived her (Shipp, 1980). One of her grandchildren, Neil Margetson, followed in his grandmother's footsteps, studying anthropology in the late 1980s (Pathe, 1988). His graduate work focused on housing problems in New York City. It is interesting to note that her funeral reception was held at Columbia University (Shipp, 1980).
As per her arrangement, Dr. Weltfish's books and papers are preserved in a collection for other scholars in Fairleigh Dickinson University, Madison's Special Collections Division (Pathe, 1988). Weltfish believed that "science and knowledge should be used 'for the good of humanity and against the destructive forces of the world'". It is evident that she worked hard during her lifetime to achieve this aim.
Her work continues on in this way, for extreme right political groups still view Dr. Weltfish's work as part of the "Boas conspiracy theory" (Winston, 2001). This conspiracy allegedly "eliminated the study of race in psychology and anthropology as preparation for the defeat of 'White Civilization' by the Jews". Her work, particularly on race, stands as a testament against these views even after her death. Because her work challenges the views of racists and Neo-Nazis today, it continues to act "against the destructive forces of the world". Dr. Weltfish's work also continues on today through the countless people she inspired as a professor, mother, grandmother and mentor (Pathe, 1988).
Benedict, R. and Weltfish, G. (1943) The Races of Mankind. Washington, D.C.: The Public Affairs Committee. Inc.
McCaughey, R. A. (2002, October). Columbia University: A Social History 1754-2002. Available: http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/cu...20%20Chapters/ Chap10.htm
Pathe, R.A. (1988). Gene Weltfish. In U. Gacs, A. Khan, J. McIntyre, and R. Weinberg (Eds.), Women Anthropologists: A Biographical Dictionary (pp. 372-381). New York: Greenwood.
Rothschild. (2002). A Century of Barnard Anthropology: The Early Period. Available: http://beatl.barnard.columbia.edu/ro...nth/early.html
Shipp, E.R. (1980, August, 5.) Prof. Gene Weltfish dead at 78; was a target of Anti-Red drives. New York Times, p. B101.
Weltfish, G. (1965) The Lost Universe. United States: Basic Books, Inc.
Winston, A.S. (2001) "The Boas Conspiracy": The history of the behavioral sciences as viewed from the extreme right. In History & Theory of Psychology Evening Colloquia 2000-2001 announcement. Available: http://www.student.york.ca/~dand/htmarch.html
Last edited by Mike Jahn; December 8th, 2008 at 03:52 AM.
|December 11th, 2008||#5|
Join Date: Dec 2003
Blog Entries: 3
Jew Wattenberg brags about Jew Boas anti-racist work
Who Was Franz Boas?
MR. WATTENBERG: Hello, I'm Ben Wattenberg. Franz Boas is known as the father of American anthropology. In the early 20th Century he bucked the trends of the time with his pioneering anti-racist theories. He gave birth to ideas that have shaped policy and become enormously controversial. This week we take a look at Franz Boas, the man, the controversy, and the legacy. To learn more Think Tank is joined by: Lee Baker, associate professor of cultural anthropology at Duke University, and author of From Savage to Negro, Anthropology and the Construction Race, 1896 to 1954; and Matthew Frye Jacobson, associate professor of American studies and history at Yale University, and author of Barbarian Virtues, the United States Encounters Foreign Peoples Abroad and At Home, 1876 to 1917. The topic before the house, who was Franz Boas, this week on Think Tank.
MR. WATTENBERG: Recently PBS aired a three-hour prime time Think Tank special, The First Measured Century, a look at trends and social change in America during the last 100 years. The life and work of anthropologist Franz Boas helped us tell that story. To set up our conversation today here are some excerpts.
(Film clip shown.)
MR. WATTENBERG (From video): Through the early 1800s immigration to America had looked like this, primarily English, Scottish, German and Scandinavian. But, between 1880 and the 1920s the flow changed. Eastern and Southern Europeans made the move to America in record numbers. These newcomers were often described by what they were not, not Protestant, not English speaking, not skilled, not educated, and not liked. The newly arrived immigrants found themselves in a hostile and alien environment. Could the new immigrants adapt to life in America? Many learned men thought not. A superintendent of the census, and later president of MIT, Francis Walker had this to say.
MR. (From video): The entrance of such vast masses of peasantry degraded below our utmost conceptions is a matter which no intelligent patriot can look upon without the gravest apprehension and alarm. They are beaten men from beaten races. They have none of the ideas and aptitudes such as belong to those who are descended from the tribes that met under the oak trees of old Germany to make laws and choose chiefs. Francis Walker, 1896.
MR. WATTENBERG (From video): Leading the opposition to this nativist view was a German Jewish immigrant who got his start in one of the coldest places on Earth. In 1883 a young scientist named Franz Boas traveled to Bathin Island in the Arctic Circle. While studying Eskimo customs Boas began to develop one of the most important concepts on modern anthropology. At the time tribal groups like the Eskimo were considered primitive and uncivilized, Northern European society was seen as the pinnacle of evolution, culturally, racially, and biologically. Boas wrote in his diary.
MR. (From video): I often ask myself what advantages our good society possesses over the savages, the more I see their customs, the more I realize that we have no right to look down on them. The idea of a cultured individual is merely relative.
MR. WATTENBERG: Gentlemen, Lee Baker, Matthew Frye Jacobson, thank you for joining us.
Lee, tell us a little bit about who Franz Boas was.
MR. BAKER: Franz Boas was a Jewish-German immigrant who came over to this country in the 1880s, after an extensive period of studying the Eskimos. And he came to the United States, and through a long kind of arduous journey ended up at Columbia University where he founded the important department of anthropology there. And his students, along with himself, really forged what became known as American anthropology, actually distinguished from French and English.
MR. WATTENBERG: What was the essence of what he was teaching?
MR. JACOBSON: Well, I think there are two important parts o the context of the development of his thought, especially in the last decade of the 19th Century, and on into the early 20th Century. One is he was responding to evolutionist thought, which at the outset in the 19th Century had battered the harshest edges of 19th Century racism by saying, well, in fact, the different races aren't from multiple origins, which is what racists in the mid-19th Century had argued, but are from a single origin and then they just developed differently.
But, by the turn of the century that evolutionist thought itself had taken on some of the hardest edges. And the argument then went that, although all humanity might be from a single site of creation, some had developed so much further than others that evolutionism itself had become quite hierarchical. So that was one of the things Boas was arguing against. Another was the ascendents of biological, and especially genetic thinking, in which different human types were thought to be completely fixed, and completely immutable.
MR. WATTENBERG: What was the -- go ahead.
MR. BAKER: So there were two major contributions -- I'd think his two major contributions were challenging this notion that there was something called savage, primitive, and civilized cultures, that was number one. And number two, that there was something called inferior and superior races. Those were his -- and he was reacting, he spent his career trying to tackle those two very important 19th Century ideas, and I think was successful. So today when we talk about cultures, plural, we can thank Franz Boas, because before that it was Culture, with a capital C, and there was just people who either had it or didn't.
MR. WATTENBERG: That is a very interesting point. We have another clip from that First Measured Century program that perhaps puts that in a broader context. Let's take a look.
(Film clip shown.)
MR. (From video): We've come to think of race in this country almost entirely in the binary terms of black and white. But, at the turn of the century there were upwards of 36 in some schemes, 75 in other schemes, races. And the largest difference being the divisions within what we now think of as being one white race.
MR. WATTENBERG (From video): One scientist named William Ripley, believe it or not, identified a hierarchy of three fundamental white racial types in Europe, by measuring head shape: The long-headed, blonde, Teutonic, type; the short headed, brunette Alpine; and the long-headed, dark Mediterranean, the Jews, Italians, Slavs, and Greeks. Surprise, the new immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe were ranked at the bottom of the scale.
MR. BAKER: This was the age of the science, and science in this time, social science as well as physical science, measuring everything from heads to leg lengths, to nose size was used to bolster discrimination.
MR. WATTENBERG (From video): In 1907 Boas began an intensive study of close to 18,000 children of European immigrants. The results were published as Changes In Bodily Form, part of a 42-volume congressional study on immigration. Boas measured height, weight, head shape and other physical traits, all cross tabulated by whether his subjects were born in Europe or America, and how long they had lived in America. The results showed that in just one generation the head shapes of children of long-skulled Nordic immigrants, and those of the round headed Slavic and Jewish immigrants were quickly becoming more like each other. In effect, once in an American environment, eating an American diet, the children were physically becoming more like American children.
MR. WATTENBERG: The people who were espousing this, as I have come to understand, I mean, it coincides with the resurgence of the Ku Klux Klan.
MR. BAKER: Absolutely.
MR. WATTENBERG: But, these are some of the tiffany scholars in the newly formed social sciences. I mean, the president of MIT, the head of the census bureau, America's leading novelist at the time, Kenneth Roberts, they are all devotees of this idea of eugenics, is that right?
MR. BAKER: Teddy Roosevelt.
MR. JACOBSON: And Calvin Coolidge. I mean, one of the things that I think is really important here is there is a tendency to call this pseudoscience and to kind of dismiss it. And, in fact, it was science, it was the science of the time.
MR. BAKER: Before Boas started doing this research, race traits and tendencies, to culture and race were seen as one. And Boas pulled them apart, he says, we've got to look at races, and he did a lot of work, he measured heads too, and we've got to look at cultures and language as three distinct modalities, which I think was profound, because before that you get Frederick Kauffman, you get the eugenic people that said, morals, behaviors, races, they're all lumped together, and we can measure their heads to determine that. And we need to engineer more and less, and it was this sort of stuff. So I think it becomes important to understand that the anthropologists at Columbia at the time were really hitting hard on this saying, if you look at race you've got to make the distinction between race and culture and language. And they literally pulled them apart.
MR. WATTENBERG: People who studied with Boas had an enormous influence later in the century, is that right? Can you sketch that in for us?
MR. BAKER: What happened is people started really thinking through and understanding whether it was Margaret Mead, or Ruth Benedict, or Melvar Hearstavist (sp), or Neal Hearston (sp), people started looking at cultures, again, like I said, on their own terms and looking at their very unique history. And this was, again, in the context where people were still talking about, they must be savages, they must be inferior. So he was saying, you know, let's look at something like the Papuan -- the people in Papua New Guinea and explain their sexuality, explain their socialization, and see that not in terms of whatever white civilization, or whatever, and in a way they're critiquing American society by looking at these so-called other cultures.
MR. WATTENBERG: I mean the argument is made that Boas' theory of cultural relativism, while certainly profound and prophetic and important in the early part of the century to knock down these racist and eugenicist feelings that were going on. Does, as the century goes on, go overboard in some respects. Margaret Mead is pointed to as one of the examples that everything is relative. I mean, can you say that the Aztec society that sacrificed 13-year-old virgins and tore their heart out on a funeral pyre is -- well, it's just the same as Middletown, USA.
MR. JACOBSON: I know you have strong feelings about this. I mean, one of the things I would say about that is, why ask the question in the first place? And the reason the question is posed, I mean it's almost always a political question. And however you want to argue the relativist position, it's actually, I think, a very useful foil for thinking through the kinds of political questions. But usually involving things like foreign policy, or imperialism, or various kind of international questions that are almost always heavily racialized, and heated, and complex. And, I don't know if there's an answer in the grand scale of philosophy, or the relativistic question, but I think the question itself --
MR. WATTENBERG: I'm struggling with this, but the argument is that Boas' successors, the pure cultural relativists sort of argued against any absolute values, any absolute standards, everything was the same, everything was relative, and it leads you, I think, to sort of this deconstructionist thought in the American academy today that says, you know, nothing means nothing.
MR. JACOBSON: You can speak to this more than I, but I mean my sense of it is that none of his followers have taken that position quite as much as his detractors have --
MR. BAKER: Foisted it upon them, yes. Using your example of the Aztecs, I would say, well, is that more barbaric than the mustard filled gas trenches of World War II. That was pretty barbaric. The crusades. I mean, there's so many countless examples in European history that are as ruthless as anything the Aztecs even dreamt about.
MR. WATTENBERG: Okay. We have another clip from that First Measured Century program. Let's take a look.
(Film clip shown.)
MR. WATTENBERG (From video): Throughout his life, Boas continued to argue that environment played a key role in shaping individuals, but eugenicists turned to another way of sorting out the races. In the early 1900s, the American scientist H.H. Goddard was in the vanguard of those promoting the newly invented intelligence quotient, the IQ test. Goddard outlined a scale of feeble-minded intelligence. At the very bottom were the idiots, barely able to function. Next came imbeciles, mentally four to ten years old and capable of only simple tasks, and Goddard added another stage just on the edge of normal intelligence, the moron.
In 1917, America entered the first world war. Millions of young men were mobilized to join the fight. Eugenicists saw an opportunity to gather a huge test sample. Louis Terman (sp) of Stanford University convinced the Army that IQ tests could help sort the draftees according to their mental ability, almost two million soldiers took the new tests. The written or alpha test included questions about American popular culture, the brand names of products, and even the location of a university. If the draftee failed the alpha test, or was unable to read, he was given the verbal beta test. He had only a few minutes to look at pictures and draw in what was missing.
MR. (From video): In looking at the intelligence tests, especially the verbal intelligence test, there was a tremendous cultural bias that was involved. Often an immigrant would be shown a picture of a tennis court and asked, what's missing from this picture? Well, if you're an Eastern European Jew fresh from the schtetle (sp) you'd hardly be aware of the fact that there's a tennis net missing from the picture of the tennis court.
MR. (From video): So scientific racism itself isn't new, but what is new in this period is the level of influence that science is having on policy debates, and on policy itself.
MR. WATTENBERG (From video): Eugenicists seized on the Army IQ tests to prove to Congress that the races of Southern and Eastern Europe were a threat to the biological makeup of the nation.
(End film clip.)
MR. WATTENBERG: This is a classic example of how social science, for all its claim to objectivity and scholarship, immediately is plunged into the political debate, and it leads directly to this 1924 Immigration Restriction Act. I mean, the Congress hears testimony that says, 75 percent of the immigrants who took the selective service, that's the draft test -- we showed them that clip, idiots, feeble-minded, morons, whatever. And they say, well, we don't want those people around. And they cut back the immigration quotas.
MR. BAKER: That's right. And they ignored Boas' Herculean effort. There was like, you mentioned, 50-some-odd volumes, Boas' was one of the most important and statistically sound volumes, but they shelved it. They didn't take one line saying, oh, we don't think we could reproduce this scientifically, or something like that, and summarily shelved what, at that point, was actually very good data. So you're right, they saw it through a political lens, which is nothing new.
MR. WATTENBERG: Which goes on as we speak today on various sides of the equation.
MR. JACOBSON: One of the ways to think about this, I think, is that while there may be such a thing as a detached, objective, scientific fact, there is no such thing as a completely objective, detached, scientific question. The answers that we get are a product of the questions that we ask. And the history of race thinking from the 19th Century onward, all of the theories are developed in very heated political context. And so that in 1912, it was important to know the IQ difference between Anglo-Saxons and Italians. We could ask the same question now, but as far as I know it's not occurring to anybody to ask that question.
MR. BAKER: Well, they're asking blacks and whites.
MR. JACOBSON: But the questions are framed in a completely different way.
MR. WATTENBERG: This whole argument that Boas gets into sort of excludes blacks. They're sort of off the scale, blacks, and Asians, and Latinos, they are not even in the contest at that point in terms of this superior/inferior rating; is that right?
MR. BAKER: In some respects, yes. But I think what Boas also did, perhaps better than anyone else is saying, there is no lines. I mean, all this imbecile stuff, moron stuff, that was within the white Anglo-Saxon race, so it was happening on both sides. It was both vertically as well as horizontally. So he would argue that, well, there are imbeciles and morons in every racial group, and there is no way to rank them, if he was going to argue that.
MR. WATTENBERG: And some of them are today teaching in our best universities, present company excluded.
MR. BAKER: But I think what he also did in the important contributions, Boas looked at ancient civilizations to show that African Americans, Asians, Indians, he went back to their ancient civilizations, the Songhai (sp) empire in Timbuktu in Africa, and said, hey, African Americans haven't always been at the bottom of the barrel, look at their great kingdoms. So, I mean, he also looked historically using archeology as well as a number of other research methods to say, they've got civilization, too.
MR. WATTENBERG: Looking back, what effect did Boas have on the perception of race and immigration in America?
MR. JACOBSON: I would say, in the short term, at the time that those eugenics debates were taking place, he had very little influence. I think that in the long-term he kind of won out in that argument. Over the balance of the 20th Century, his views have ascended on the race question anyway.
MR. WATTENBERG: And on the immigrant question.
MR. JACOBSON: And on the immigrant question. I think that one of the ironies, though, right at the end of his life, he really was trying to dismantle the notion of the distinct white races, and this is in the '30s, especially as news was coming out of Germany. And that was, I think, for him going to be part of a much bigger project of dismantling race entirely. He died before that ever happened. And one of the ironies is, and I think it's one of the really vexing things for American political culture, afterwards, is that the white races, in fact, did get dismantled around mid-century. Now we have kind of one consanguine Caucasian race, where the distinction between a Celt and a Slav really is not so salient to us. But race and color kind of coalesced in a way that's as fierce and as intractable as the earlier races were in the early part of the century. So that race itself, the race concept, has not been successfully dismantled in the way that I think he had hoped. Privilege maybe has been reorganized.
MR. WATTENBERG: Lee, it has not been dismantled, but is it in the process of dismantlement?
MR. BAKER: Yes, and no.
MR. WATTENBERG: You ought to go into politics, you're in the right town.
MR. BAKER: What he did is, he laid the foundation to establish that we cannot say one race is biologically superior or inferior to another, which was historic. That ended segregation, and his research was used in Brown, et al. But what he also opened the door for was allowing the idea that these -- now that race is not biology, it's simply another cultural fact, which is very persistent. Now we have to fight race on social, cultural, economic grounds, because we know it's not biological.
So what he did is, he took out the biological component of race, and what was left standing was the scaffolding which was there from the beginning, which was the economic, social and cultural foundations of race.
MR. WATTENBERG: Okay. We are going to have to leave it at that, but he is, Boas, I have found at least in learning something, quite an intriguing American thinker.
Thank you, Lee Baker, and Matthew Jacobson. And thank you. Please remember to send us your comments via email. For Think Tank, I'm Ben Wattenberg.
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|April 3rd, 2012||#6|
Join Date: Jun 2011
What a complete lie!
These progressives are teaching all the children in public schools that race does not exist, while at the same time pushing for "affirmative action" policies (actually racial quotas).
Teachers fear getting fired if they tell their students that racial differences do exist, yet are expected to teach out of history and anthropology textbooks that make it seem like, or actually blatently say, that there are no racial differences.
Many of these very same progressives, that are trying to make everyone believe that the obvious is not true, are the same ones intentionally trying to destroy the white race through mixing. The think there can never be "equality" as long as there are different races, and they are right! (though for different reasons than they think)
You want proof that race exists? Take a look at them and compare! Some people are obviously one race, and others are obviously another! Does it not make sense that people probably have the same degree of differences on the inside as they do on the outside? Yes, there are is much variation between people of the same ethnicity, but these variations are of a different type and quality than between different races. Not really fair to compare variations between different whites, because the white people are a collection of several different ethnicities. Many of those progressive "studies" are misleading.
And what about breeds of dogs? We all know different breeds have very different behavioral predispositions and levels of intelligence, yet they are all considered within the same species.
|April 3rd, 2012||#7|
Join Date: Apr 2012
Anders you are correct in several aspects, but one. Make no mistake, there are variations between Whites. For example, having European ancestry, I know that I'm genetically different than a Middle Easterner. I also assume you are referring to 100% White; not mixed, correct?
|February 17th, 2013||#8|
[good article on Napoleon Chagnon]
Marvin Harris, the leading cultural materialist and a professor at Columbia, was adamant that the Yanomami could not be fighting over women, and in 1975, he threw down a gauntlet. One of Harris’s former students, Daniel Gross, had just published a paper arguing that a scarcity of animal protein led to conditions that favored violence among Amazonian tribes, a theory Harris enthusiastically adopted. Chagnon, who had taken a job at Penn State, and three graduate students met with Harris in New York, on their way to Venezuela. “Harris said, ‘If you can show me that the Yanomami get the protein equivalent of one Big Mac per day, I’ll eat my hat,’ ” recalled Chagnon, who accepted the challenge.
By then Chagnon was waging battles on several fronts. That year, the Harvard biologist Edward O. Wilson published “Sociobiology,” to the dismay of many anthropologists, who were appalled by what they perceived as Wilson’s attempt to reduce human social behavior to an effect of genes. But Chagnon was excited by Wilson’s ideas, and in 1976 he and a colleague arranged for two sessions on sociobiology to take place at the annual A.A.A. convention. The evening before the sessions, several scholars moved to prohibit them. “Impassioned accusations of racism, fascism and Nazism punctuated the frenzied business meeting that night,” Chagnon writes in “Noble Savages.” Only after Margaret Mead denounced the motion as a “book burning” was it defeated.
|February 17th, 2013||#10|
Join Date: Oct 2012
So credit Weltfish with introducing the new racism - you can always claim that whites are inferior in some way, but you can never claim that non-whites are inferior in any way.
Question. Does anyone care about round heads or long heads besides professors?
|May 17th, 2013||#11|
Join Date: Jun 2011
countless examples in the animal kingdom...
There exist different subspecies of dogs. Even though the different subspecies can interbreed, they still have obvious physical and behavioral differences. http://www.ao.net/~holmanh/CoppBioBa...ppBioBases.htm
Certain areas of the USA are considering breed-specific legislation which places certain breeds or mixes of these breeds under required spaying/neutering, muzzling, special insurance, and licensing. Although Lansing, Michigan, may not be adopting such legislation soon, many other areas in the country already have. In fact, over 600 cities have enacted such laws.
There certainly are important differences between boys and girls, not only their bodies, but also in behavior, needs, way of playing, way of thinking, etc.
The differences are not all merely superficial, as so many idealists would have us believe. It should be obvious that different people are different, and such group differences are not merely confined to gender.
What ecology can tell us about racial cohabitation
In ecology, the competitive exclusion principle states that two species competing for the same resources cannot coexist. This principle also applies to sexually isolated subspecies. When one species has even the slightest advantage or edge over another, then the one with the advantage will dominate in the long term. One of the two competitors will always overcome the other, leading to either the extinction of this competitor or an evolutionary or behavioral shift towards a different ecological niche.
True coexistence is very rare, and such instances are only possible through a combination of non-limiting food and habitat resources and high rates of predation and parasitism.
These ecological phenomena may have implications in human society. If human subspecies actually exist, then in the long term they will either completely mix, or they will be unable to coexist in the same region while occupying identical places within the economic structure. The different subspecies would either have to speciate into different occupational niches, or go extinct.
Five different subspecies of warblers inhabit the same spruce tree, but differ in what part of a spruce tree they frequent, and whether they capture insects on needles, under bark, or flying in the air. The subspecies are reproductively isolated from eachother by differences in feather coloration and mating calls. In the wild the different subspecies generally do not interbreed, but the different subspecies can be induced to mate in the lab, to produce hybrid offspring. Even superficially similar subspecies actually have important differences, upon close inspection.
Perhaps we should be asking how the competitive exclusion principle may apply to different human subspecies?
|July 8th, 2013||#13|
Join Date: Jan 2004
Location: In my comfy rabbit hole. Wut's it to ya, doitbag?
Yeah: just watch how fast Buckwheat, he who claims that race is nothing more than a social construct, checks the box marked "black/African-American" when applying for government assistance in the form of welfare or food stamps, or racial set-asides and preferences. And as judaism is at once a race and a religion (depending on how the jew wants to play the issue at hand to his advantage) so it is with blacks and race.
Wit' jews ya lose; wit' rope deah's hope.
Last edited by Matthaus Hetzenauer; July 8th, 2013 at 12:17 PM.
|July 9th, 2013||#14|
Join Date: Oct 2012
To be fair, this woman is being credited with tearing down traditional JEWISH culture, the same as any other:
"...Gene's grandmother encouraged her to "follow her heart and break the rules". It is no doubt that her grandmother's encouragement to "break the rules" had its roots in the fact that her own father had secretly educated her in Hebrew..."
Dear old Grandma telling the youngster to "follow your heart" is a standard movie scene, ex: the old black and white "A Star is Born" film with Fredric March.
Real white Grandmas don't this. They say get a job, work, save money, get a practical degree, etc. Mostly the say work, work, work. Or did. The modern generation of Grandmas/Oprah fans are different. They have been programmed. But, also, working doesn't get you all the rewards it used to, and jobs are hard to find.
So, cover yourself with tattoos, my son, and get a guitar and learn how to play...
|June 11th, 2015||#15|
Join Date: Jun 2015
Race is an important biological classification of Humans. The different races differ significantly in average ability levels and behavior. These differences are the result of evolving in response to different population pressures.
Civilization selects for intelligence, while deselecting for physical aggressiveness. This is why races that have practiced civilization the longest have high IQ averages and low crime rates.